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*:
*:
     
 
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44 : , , : . . / . ... .: , 2000 464 .: .

ISBN 985-11-0173-7

300 , , . -- , . , , , , .

.




(d'Abbadie) (3.1.181019.3.1897) (24.7.181513.11.1893)

() (18091891)

(Alvarado) (. 14851541)

(Almagro) 14758.7.1538)

(Amundsen) (16.7.18721928)

(Andree) (18.10.1854 1897)

(15.2.179612.10.1869)

(Armstrong) () (p. 8.5.1930)

(10.9.18724.9.1930)

(. 1661-1664-1711)

(Byron) (8.11.172310.4.1786)

(Back) ( 179623.6.1878)

(Balboa) ( ) (14751517)

( 1746--28.4.1819)

(rends, Barents , (. 155020.6.1597)

(Barrow) (19.6.176423.11.1848)

(Earth) (16.2.182125.11.1865)

(Bass) (1771 . 1802)

(Bastian) (26.6.18262.2.1905)

(Bastidas) (14601527)

(Button) (.. . 1634)

(Baffin) (158423.1.1622)

( ) (19.2.187418.5.1927)

(Baker) (8.6.182130.12.1893)

, (Belalcazar Benalcazar), (, , ),(14951551)

, ( ) (22.9.177825.1.1852)

(Belcher) (179918.3.1877)

, (14.3.187624.12.1950)

(Bering) (16818.12.1741)

(Burke) ' ( 182128.6.1861)

(Bering) (16818.12.1741)

(Burke) ' ( 182128.6.1861)

(Berlanga) (.. . 1551)

(Burton) (19.3.182120.10.1890)

(Betaaim) (6.10.145929.7.1507)

( -) (4.9.97313.12.1048, 1050)

(Beechey) (17961856)

(Bligh) (9.9.17547.12.1817)

(Borchgrevink) (1.12.186423.4.1934)

(Brazza) --- (426.1.185214.9.1905)

˨ (Brule) (15921633)

(Bougainville) (11.11.172931.8.1811)



(Burckhardt) (24.11.178415.10.1817)

(19.2.181610.7.1869)

(28.2.179228.11.1876)

, (Byrd) (25.10.188812.3.1957)

- (24.10.186418.6.1937)

(Weyprecht) (8.9.183828.3.1881)

(Valdivia) (. 1498/1500 25.12.1553 1.1.1554)

(Vambery) (19.3.183215.9.1913)

(Vancouver) (22.6.175810.5.1798)

, (Velazquez de Cuellar 14641524)

(Benjamin de Tudela) (. . . 1173)

(.. . 1731)

(Verrazzano; - ) (1485 ? - . 1528)

(Vespucci) (145422.2.1512)

(5.3.188619.2.1954)

(13.7.185811.3.1913)

(3.4.18856.3.1961)

(Villalobos) .. . 1546)

(Wissmann) (18531905)

(20.5.1842 9.2.1916)

(2.6.1869 25.9.1910)

(9.1.17976.6.1870)

(180126.10.1885)

(9.3.193427.3.1968)

(Gama) (146924.12.1524)

(II anno) 17 . ..

(.1780-20.09.1845)

(Hedin) (19.2.186526.11.1952)

(. Hekataios Milesios) (. 546480 . ..)

(Heemskerch) (13.3.156725.4.1607)

(Dom Enrique Navegador)

, (Herberstein) (23.8.148628.3.1566)

(. Herodotosf) (. 485 . 425 . ..)



(1815-15.5.1875)

(Grant) (11.4.182711.2.1892)

(Gregory) (1.8.181925.6.1905)

(Gregory) (19.10.182124.10.1888)

(Grey) (14.4.181219.9.1898)

(Gray) (10.5.17551806)

(Greely) (27.3.184420.10.1935)

(Grijalva) (14891527)

- (17.2.18603.3.1936)

, X (Hudson) (. 1550-1611)

(Humboldt) ( ) (14.9.17696.5.1859)

(Hue), (1.7.1813-.26.3.1860)

(Dampier) (8.6.1652 1715)

' (D'Entrecasteaux) (173920.7.1793)

(Darwin) (12.2.180919.4.1882)

ͨ (16051673)

, (Davis) (. 155029.12.1605)

(Decken) , (18.8.18332.10.1865)

- (De Long) (22.8.184430.10.1881)

, (Denham) (1.1.17868.5.1828)

(Giles) (18351897)

, (Dias (Diaz) de Novaes) (145029.5.1500)

(Dias) (15 .)

(Dease) ( 17881863)

(31.7.180223.1.1889)

(Drake) (.154028.1.1596)

(9.2.186510.1.1949)

(30.4.183331.1.1930)

- (Dumont d'Urville) (23.5.17908.5.1842)

(17.2.183726.11.1896)

(. . . 6.8.1585)

(Gerlache de Gomery) (2.8.18664.12.1934)

(20.4.18341916)

(Jolliet, Jollet) (OK. 21.9.1645 1700)

(2.6.18083.2.1890)

(12.1.175418.1.1794)

- - (24.2.1304-1377)

, ( 9 . 10 .)

(1- 10 .)

- 4(9 .)

(18181871)

, - () (11001161 1165)

(Cabot, Cabota, Caboto) (14741557)

(Cabral) (1467 . 1520)

(Cabrillo) (. p. . 3.1.1543)

(Cavendish) (. 15551592)

(Cabeza de Vaca) (. 1490. 1560)

(Caillie) (19.9.179917.5.1838)

(Cameron) (1.7.184427.3.1894)

(Cao) (. 1440. 1486)

, (Capello de Britoj) (1839- . .)

( 180129.12.1872)

(Carpini, da Plan del Carpine) (. 11821.4.1252)

KAPTEPET (Carteret) (.. .1796)

(Cartier) (14911.9.1557)

(Castelnau) (18124.2.1880)

(Kellett) (2.11.18061.3.1875)

(Kampfer) (16.9.16512.11.1716)

, (Kerguellen Tremarec) (17341797)

(Quesada) (15001579)

(King) ( ) (13.12.17931856)

(16891737)

(Quiros) (15651614)

(Clapperton) (18.5.178813.4.1827)

(Clark) (1.8.17701.9.1838)

(Clarke) (174122.8.1779)



(15.10.186326.9.1935)

(1680-2.12.1734)

(. Columbus, . Colombo,Colony) (29.10.145120.5.1506)

(La Condamine) (28.1.17014.2.1774)

(Conti) (13951469)

(Coronado) (151022.9.1554)

(Cortes) (14852.12.1547)

(Cortereal) (14501501)

OTTO (30.12.178815.2.1846)

(11.11.17118.3.1755)

(9.12.1842 8.2.1921)

(19.11.177024.8.1846)

(Cook) (27.10.172814.2.1779)

(Cousteau) (11.6.191025.6.1997)

(La Verendrye) (Varennes) (17.11.16855.12.1749)

(14.11.178823.4.1851)

(La Perouse) (Galaup) (22.8.17411788)



(.p. . 1763)

KACAC (Las Casas) ( 147417.7.1566)

, (Cavelier de la Salle) (22.11.164319.3.1687)

(, X -) (1492 1550)

, (Leifr inn heppni Eiriksson) (1011 .)

(Leichhardt) , (18131848)

(Lemaire, Le Make) (1585- 1616)

(Laing) (27.12.179326.9.1826)

(Lander) (1804 1834) (18071839)

Ϩ (21.9.174018.4.1802)

(Livingstone) (19.3.18131.5.1873)

(13.8.1773 6.3.1837)





(4.9.182525.11.1886)

(. 1480-27.4.1521)

(8.1.184913.4.1904)

(Mackenzie) (176412.3.1820)

- (McClintocK) (8.7.181917.11.1907)

- (McClure) (28.1.180717.10.1873)

(. . . 1764)

, - - -( 9 . 957)

(Pomponius Mela) (1 . ..)

(Mendafia de Neyra) (1541 18.10.1595)

(Mendosa) (148723.6.1537)

(Menendez de Aviles) (15.2.151917.9.1574)

MEPKATOP (15122.12.1594)

(18.8.181528.1.1894)

- (17.7.184614.4.1888)

(Mitchell) ( 15.6.17925.10.1855)

(Moreno) (18521919)

(17 .)

(Mawson) (15.5.188214.10.1958)

(Moyano) (18541910)

(21.1.185023.1.1902)

(Nansen) (10.10.186113.5.1930)

(Nachtigal) (23.2.183420.4.1885)



(5.12.181329.4.1876)

(2- 11 12 .)

(Niebuhr) (17.3.173326.4.1815)

(. . . 1472)

(Mobile) (21.1.18851978)

(Nordenskiold) (1.183212.8.1901)

(Wares) (24.4.183115.1.1915)

(10.10.186319.6.1956)



(Ogden) (17941854)

(. 128614.1.1331)

(Olearius) (Olschlager) (16.8.160323.2.1671)

(Orellana) (. 1490-. 1546)

(Ortelius, Oertel) (14.4.152728.6.1598)

-

(Ojeda) (14701515)

(Payer) (1.9.184230.8.1915)

(22.9.1741 8.9.1811)

(26.11.189430.1.1986)

(Park) (10.9.17711806)

(Parry) (19.2.17908.7.1855)

(180019.11.1835)

(2.6.184310.3.1902)

, (Piccardfc) (28.1.188425.3.1962)

, (Piccard) (. 28.7.1922)

, (Piccard) (. 1958)

(Pinzon) (14401493)

(Pinzon) (1460 . 1524)

(Peary) (6.5.185620.2.1920)

(Pizarro) (1475-26.6.1541)



(Polo) (. 12548.1.1324)

(Ponce de Leon) (. 14601521)

(17 .)

(4.10.183530.7.1920)

(17 .)

(12.4.18391.11.1888)

(.. . 1796)

(170229.8.1736)

(Ptolemaios) (100168)

(19.11.1804-28.10.1883)

, (2.8.154928.2.1616)

(Rasmussen) (7.6.187921.12.1933)

, (.. . 1666)

(Reclus) (15.3.18304.7.1905)

(. 1642 1720)

- (Riiser-Larsen) (7.6.18901965)

(Richthofen) (5.5.18336.10.1905)

(8.5.18565.6.1910)

(Roggeveen) (. 1659. 1729)

(Ross) (15.4.18003.4.1862)

(Ross) (24.6.177730.8.1856)

, (Ruysbroeck) (p. 1215 1220 1293)

(15.11.18751913)

, (Ralegh, Raleigh) (155229.10.1618)

(Saavedra) (.. . 1529)

(Sarmiento de Gamboa) (15321592)

(176311.8.1831)

(Sverdrup) OTTO (31.10.185426.11.1930)

(5.11.18277.2.1885)

(5.5.18775.3.1914)

̨-- ( 1906 . ) (14.1.182711.3.1914)

(Serpa Pinto) (20.4.184628.12.1900)

(Scott) (6.6.1868 . 30.3.1912)

(Smith) (. 1580 1631)

(Solis) (. 14701516)

(Soto) (149621.5.1542)

(Speke) (3.5.182715.9.1864)

(.. . 1666)

(Stefansson) (3.11.187926.8.1962)

Ҩ (Stmt) (28.4.179516.6.1869)

(Strabon) (64/63 .. 23/24 ..)

(Strzelecki) (20.7.17976.10.1873)

(Stanley) (28.1.184110.5.1904)

, (Schouten) (15801625)

- (602664)

(Tasman) (1603 . 22.10.1659)

, (Tilho) (1.3.18751956)

(Tinne) () (17.10.18391.8.1869)

(14.3.18581902)

(Thompson) (30.4.177010.2.1857)

TOMCOH (Thomson) (14.2.18582.8.1895)

(Torres) (15601614)

(Wilkins) (31.10.18881.12.1958)

(Wilkes) (3.4.17988.12.1877)

(Wallis) (17281795)

(Warburton) (18131889)

(Urdaneta) (1498 3.6.1568)

(30.1.1901 3.12.1963)

(Weddell) (24.8.17879.9.1834)

(19.2.184415.9.1873)

Ԩ (.. . 1733)

(Fitzroy) (5.7.1805 30.4.1865)

(Flinders) (16.3.177419.7.1814)

(Forrest) (22.8.1847 3.9.1918)

(Franklin) (16.4.1786 11.6.1847)

, (Francisco Xavier, st.) (7.4.15063.12.1552)

(Fremont)

(Frobisher) (153522.11.1594)

(Fuchs) (11.2.1908)

( ) (. 1610 1667)

(Heyerdahl) (6.10.1914)

(Hern) (1745 11.1792)

(Hillary) (20.6.1919)

(6.12.1800 21.2.1881)

(Hall) (18218.11.1871)

, - (114812.8.1227)

(24.2.1833 30.10.1876)

(. 1700 1760)

.
 

 

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