30 October's 1730 In Moscow, in the family of retired brigadier Vasily Ivanovich Suvorov and his wife Avdotya Fedoseevna, a boy was born who was named Sasha-in honor of the famous Prince Alexander Nevsky. So the future Generalissimo Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov was born.
The Suvorov family has its roots in Sweden: their ancestor was a Swedish nobleman who came to Russia in the early 1930s. 1622 in the year under Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich and took the name of Suvorov.
Even as a boy, Sasha became interested in reading books, especially about military battles and exploits, he read them avidly, and he decided to become a military man himself: it seems that along with his name, the spirit of the great commander who defeated the knight dogs on Lake Peipus also possessed him.
All day long he did nothing but climb trees, holes and ditches, and ride the village horses. In the rain, he deliberately ran outside to get wet, because he believed that " a soldier should get used to everything." He could swim at all until the very frosts, his parents had to almost pull him out of the water by force.
However, Sasha was so small in stature, looked so thin and weak, that his father did not even want to hear about any military service: it was clear that it was not for him.
Fortunately, one day General Hannibal, Peter the Great's Arab, came to visit them and immediately noticed the boy's passion for military affairs. It was he who persuaded Sasha's father to fulfill his son's dream and send him to some military regiment.
So 12-summer Alexander Suvorov was enlisted in the Life Guards Semenovsky Regiment.
However, another three years, until 15 for many years, Alexander continued to live at home with his parents, and only in 1745 year he entered the service.
He began his military career from scratch – from a private, although his noble origin gave him the opportunity to immediately become an officer.
But Alexander chose to go through everything from the very beginning. He was happy to stand guard in bad weather or frost, spent almost all his free time with the soldiers in the barracks, ate their rough food with them and was like a brother to them. And soon Alexander was rewarded for his diligence - he rose to the rank of corporal.
This was helped by one lucky chance. One day, young Alexander was standing guard in Montplaisir (Peterhof), and the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna passed by. Alexander saluted her according to the regulations. Elizabeth asked him his name and gave him a ruble in silver. However, Alexander politely replied that the law forbids a soldier to accept money while standing guard.
Such a noble and honest answer pleased the Empress. "Well done! You know the service, " she said. "I'll put the money on the ground, and you can take it when you're relieved."
The next day, Suvorov was ordered to be promoted to corporal out of turn.
In 1754 year Suvorov was promoted to lieutenant with a transfer to the Ingermanland Infantry Regiment. Alexander at this time was 25 years.
The Seven Years ' War
For the first time, Suvorov had a chance to participate in combat operations during the Seven Years ' War of the Austrian Succession, which was waged by Austria in alliance with Saxony, France and Sweden against the young and aggressive King of Prussia, Frederick II. Russia also joined the union with Austria.
In 1759 year Suvorov already in the rank of lieutenant Colonel of the Kazan Infantry Regiment is appointed divisional duty officer in the headquarters of Count Fermor.
The first battle in which Suvorov took part took place near Kunersdorf. The young lieutenant colonel distinguished himself in several heroic operations, while he always took care of his soldiers, for which they simply adored him.
One of his officers later wrote to his fellow colleagues that Suvorov's extraordinary courage made an impression not only on his soldiers, but even on the enemy's army, which Suvorov alone caused a lot of trouble.
At Kunersdorf, not just a battle ensued, but a real massacre. In this battle, Suvorov appeared just where it was most dangerous, stood in front of the regiment and led it to the attack, without even asking where and who the commander was.
In a matter of weeks, Suvorov turned his Hussars and Cossacks into real hawks and eagles, so that his vanguard did not walk, but simply flew.
At that time, it was a real breakthrough in the issue of training troops, the secret of high-speed crossings of Suvorov soldiers and the key to the present and future victories of Suvorov.
In one night, Suvorov, along with a hundred Cossacks, ran six miles (42 versts) and by morning was at the walls of Landsberg, where General Platen was preparing to enter Poland.
At Suvorov's command, the soldiers broke down the gates and stormed into the city. The Prussian Hussars did not expect an attack and did not prepare for a defense. As a result, the Prussians surrendered in a panic, although they were five times stronger than the Russians. Suvorov ordered to break part of the bridge, burn the other part, and then rode away.
Once the rearguard, which was commanded by Suvorov, was surrounded. The Prussians began to demand that the Russians surrender. In response, Suvorov said that he did not know such a word, and rushed at the enemy, who was nine times stronger than him. Fortunately, the courageous Colonel Tekeli and his soldiers managed to come to Suvorov's aid, as a result of which the Prussians lost about 1000 soldier and 40 officers.
On another occasion, ten squadrons of selected Prussian Hussars began to push the Russian grenadiers so hard that they could not resist and began to retreat. Suddenly Suvorov appeared from somewhere and shouted: "Stop!.. I'm here! " and the soldiers stopped. Suvorov commanded, and the soldiers obeyed as if it were a simple drill.
After that, Suvorov himself led the grenadiers to the attack, cut into the Prussian cavalry, defeated it and, threatening to cut them all down, forced them to surrender and took them prisoner 800 a person of lower ranks and 40 He also released the Russian Colonel Fuker, who had been captured in the first attack.
Such miracles of heroism were performed by Suvorov in this Austro-Prussian war, practically single-handedly winning the victory of the Russian army. All the generals were fascinated by him, and most of all General Fermor.
Russia's exit from the Seven Years ' War
In 1761 Elizabeth Petrovna died last year.
In 1762 In 1945, Empress Catherine II ascended the Russian throne, who immediately made peace with Prussia, and Russian troops were withdrawn from the front.
Lieutenant Colonel Suvorov, as a reward for his distinction, was sent to St. Petersburg from the Governor-General of Konigsberg Panin with a report to Her Majesty about the withdrawal of Russian troops from Prussia.
When Suvorov respectfully appeared before Catherine II with a report, he was immediately granted the rank of colonel of the army and appointed commander of the Astrakhan infantry regiment. He was at this time 33 years.
Six years have passed since the end of the Seven Years ' War with Prussia. All this time Suvorov commanded the Suzdal Infantry Regiment, which was located in the city of Novaya Ladoga and consisted of 1000 human.
In the summer 1765 in front of the palace in Tsarskoye Selo, traditional military maneuvers were held with the participation of 30 000 soldiers. Catherine herself personally commanded the division, on horseback, in the specially tailored men's uniform of the Preobrazhensky regiment. Suvorov's regiment covered the Imperial division from the rear during these maneuvers.
The Polish Confederate War
In 1768 In 1945, the Suzdal Regiment under the command of Suvorov is sent to Poland to help the Russian units stationed there under the command of General Weimarn.
In Poland, another power struggle broke out with a religious bias: the local nobility opposed those who were not Catholic. In fact, it was a noble revolution to take power away from the king, disguised as religious fanaticism.
The Polish nobles convened their congress in the town of Bar, which was called the "confederation", at which they proclaimed their demands and rights, more like exorbitantly inflated privileges.
Then Catherine ordered the Russian units stationed in Poland to open military operations against these "lordly confederates".
A detachment under the command of General Numers, which included Suvorov's Suzdal infantry regiment, went to the aid of the Russian garrison stationed in Poland.
Weinmarn informed Suvorov that Warsaw was also on the eve of a riot, and that they were only waiting for their commander Kotelupowski, who had 8,000 men.
Suvorov decided to check out these rumors. Seven versts from Warsaw, he found Polish horsemen on the right bank, immediately waded across the river, attacked them and defeated them. As it turned out, this was the Kotelupovsky detachment, consisting of only 400 human.
After that, Suvorov learned that two large detachments of confederates were gathering in Lithuania under the command of the Pulavsky brothers.
He made his way through the swamp to the forest where the Confederates were stationed, rushed at them and put them to flight. At the same time, Franz Pulawski, one of the two ringleader brothers, was killed.
Catherine approved of Suvorov's decisive actions, producing it in January 1770 year in major general.
Suvorov became the main hero in the war against the Confederates.
As soon as it became known about a gathering of Poles, Suvorov immediately swooped down and dispersed all their groups, taking captured weapons and trying to spare the people whom the Confederates had gathered into their squads.
At the same time, Suvorov himself almost died on the Vistula River crossing. Jumping on the ferry, Suvorov broke off, hit his chest on the edge of the ferry and lost consciousness. They pulled him out, but he was sick 3 months.
Catherine sent him the Order of St. John the Baptist as a support. Anna.
Assault on the Lantskorona
In the town of Lanzkorona, in 28 Three versts from Cracow, Suvorov was met by a combined Confederate force of about 5,000 men. Among them was Colonel Dumouriez, specially sent from France to help the Confederates.
It was useless to storm Lanzkoronsky castle: the Russian forces were too unequal against the confederates who were holed up inside. Then Suvorov changed his tactics, and his lightning attack misled Dumouriez with its obvious recklessness, as a result, he delayed the moment when it was possible to repel the Russians, after which it was too late to resist, and the Confederates fled.
Dumouriez realized the utter futility of supporting the Confederates who could not resist and left back to France.
Battle of Stalovichi
The most outstanding was the victory of Suvorov over the Lithuanian hetman Oginsky at the town of Stalovichi.
Some of the confederates defeated at Lanzkorona fled abroad, while others took refuge in Lithuania, replenishing the detachment of Hetman Oginsky. A regiment of "black Hussars" under the command of General Kossakovsky pulled up to Oginsky. Confederate volunteers flocked to him from everywhere. So, Oginsky gathered a whole army of 5,000 people.
The Confederates already saw Oginsky as the leader of their movement and the savior of Poland.
Suvorov acted, as always, with lightning speed, attacked from the rear, from which the Confederates retreated in panic to the village of Stalovichi. Suvorov units rushed in behind them. Hetman Oginsky himself fled to Konigsberg.
Here Suvorov almost died again. It was so dark that he mistook a prowling Polish soldier from Oginsky's army for a Russian, and began to give him orders. He fired at Suvorov at point-blank range, but missed.
Suvorov was uneasy about winning this strange and ridiculous war, when his whole role was to scare away Confederate crowds.
Therefore, he tried not to kill the enemy, but to take prisoners. As a result, so many prisoners accumulated that their number was almost equal to the winners themselves.
In addition, the Russians had to drag a huge wagon train behind them, since the Russians took all the Polish guns for themselves. Suvorov also unloaded the prisoners in Nesvizh, which was slowing him down, because he was eager to reach Cracow.
Capture of Krakow
Colonel Stackelberg, who succeeded Suvorov in command of the Suzdal Regiment, was responsible for Krakow. He was a brave enough man, but careless, and sick and elderly. So it was clearly not suitable for the protection of Krakow.
During his time in charge of Cracow, he gradually made things so bad that sooner or later the Confederates had to take advantage of it, which they did.
It came to the point that the guards were either not posted at all, or the sentries on duty were simply asleep. Krakow remained virtually unguarded. In this form, it would be simply stupid not to take it.
Inside the city, there were clearly some Confederate sympathizers who had no trouble sawing down the grilles on the drain channels through which they had passed. 22 January 1772 then the waiting French entered the city.
So Krakow suffered a catastrophe, as a result of which the city fell into the hands of the Confederates.
In this state, the city was found by Suvorov who came up.
The first thing that occurred to Suvorov was to send his soldiers to storm Cracow, but he knew better than anyone that assaults in this Polish campaign were not successful due to the small number of Russian units and artillery, since all the main forces were engaged in the Turkish War.
Then Suvorov stopped at the blockade of the city. To take Krakow, it was necessary to besiege it.
In April, large-caliber guns arrived at Suvorov, which made it possible to break through the wall, which was done in several places at once.
To avoid unnecessary casualties, Suvorov sent word to the Cracow garrison that if they did not surrender, they would be exterminated.
Horse meat and crows were already being eaten in the city at this time, so the garrison began to be inclined to surrender Krakow to the Russians.
As a result, after a short negotiation, 15 April 1772 year of the surrender of Krakow.
The French gave their swords to Suvorov, but he returned them with the words: "My lady is not at war with your king. You are not my prisoners, but my guests." Then he hugged them and told them to buy them a drink.
After Cracow fell, the Confederacy had nothing to hold on to, and the war began to wane by itself.
For the victory over the confederacy, Catherine granted Suvorov 1000 rubles, and his army 10 000 rubles.
Suvorov's success could not fail to arouse envy and jealousy among the other generals. Intrigues began to weave against Suvorov. He was accused of ignorance of tactics and strategy, that he did not fight according to the rules, tired the soldiers with long marches.
As a result, it turned out that Catherine simultaneously received Suvorov's report on the victory and a complaint about it from generals Weimarn and Saldern.
Catherine's response was the resignation of Weimarn and Saldern, who were replaced by Suvorov's friend A. I. Bibikov.
The Turkish War
In 1772 In the following year, Suvorov was summoned to St. Petersburg, and Catherine instructed him to inspect Russian fortresses from the Swedish border, since war with Sweden was expected.
However, while the war with Sweden had not yet begun, Suvorov asked to be sent to the Russian-Turkish front, where the war dragged on for the fifth year. This was a real serious war, not some small skirmish with the Confederates.
The Russo-Turkish campaign was led by Rumyantsev, himself by that time already a famous hero. Therefore, the arrival of another famous hero in the person of General Suvorov was met by him very coldly. He dryly assigned Suvorov to Saltykov's corps, which guarded the left bank of the Danube, and that was all.
Suvorov went through a good school in Poland, so he came to the Turkish War as an experienced and seasoned warrior, who combined the ability to see the enemy's weaknesses, audacity in attacks, tireless pursuit and vigilance.
Storming of Turtukai
Suvorov with two regiments was sent to investigate the fortress of Turtukai.
Suvorov immediately saw that it was possible to cross the river and take the fortress. Having received Saltykov's permission, he led the detachment to the crossing site, but he had to wait for the infantry and carts to approach in order to transport the boats to the water: the rest of the army could not keep up with the too active Suvorov .
While waiting for reinforcements, Suvorov allows the squad to rest, and he also lies down on the shore, wrapped in a raincoat.
However, the Turks noticed the Russian preparations and decided to stop them. They hurried across the Danube, took off their sentries, and went on the offensive so furiously that they almost reached Suvorov, who was lying down to rest. Suvorov was saved only by the fact that he woke up in time and managed to jump on his horse.
Russian Carabinieri stopped the Turks ' sortie, crushed them and drove them back to the river. Since the Russian assault was already declassified, it could no longer be postponed, and Suvorov decided to take Turtukai through the mouth of the Arzhish River, which flows into the Danube.
The infantry crossed by boat, and the cavalry swam away. The Turks opened fire, but in the dark they fired at random, so that the Russians managed to get safely ashore.
On the way, they found a loaded cannon, a shot from which almost cost Suvorov his life: the cannon was torn apart, and Suvorov fell, severely concussed.
However, he immediately jumped to his feet, rushed to the Turkish redoubt and captured the bearded janissary. The Russians broke into the city, which the Turks left almost without a fight. Turtukai was taken and given to the Suvorov soldiers to plunder, after which the city was burned.
As trophies were taken 6 banners, 14 guns, 30 vessels and 21 a boat.
Suvorov became the hero of Turtukai.
However, he was afraid that the victory would not save him from the wrath of the commander-in-chief, since this victory he obtained willfully, without the permission of his superiors. To smooth the situation, Suvorov wrote a report on the victory in a joking form: "Glory to God, glory to you! Turtukai is taken, and I'm there!»
But this did not help: Rumyantsev took the joke for a mockery, summoned Suvorov to the main apartment, reprimanded him severely, after which Suvorov was removed from command, put under a military field tribunal and sentenced to death for disobeying the commander-in-chief's order.
In an instant, Suvorov was transformed from a winner to a defendant.
The decision of the tribunal was sent to Catherine for consideration, and in the meantime Suvorov was ordered to report to Saltykov again for further service.
But from the resulting concussion and nervous stress that the death sentence was hanging over him, Suvorov's state of health was so shaken that he was led by two adjutants.
Meanwhile, the verdict on Suvorov reached the empress, she recognized her brave general and wrote on top of the verdict: "Winners are not judged", and sent Suvorov the Cross of St. George II degree "For bravery and courageous work".
At the beginning 1774 years Suvorov was promoted to Lieutenant General.
Seeing the patronage of the empress, Rumyantsev willy-nilly had to endure Suvorov in the army.
Then Rumyantsev, repeating the biblical story of King David and his commander Uriah, puts Suvorov on the most dangerous task: to protect the town of Girsovo, occupied by the Russians, and most likely, cherishing a secret desire to get rid of the hands of the Turks from a more talented commander than himself.
Suvorov arrives at the site, sees its extreme vulnerability and immediately strengthens it with several trenches and a deep ditch.
On the night of 3 september Turkish horsemen appeared. Suvorov decided to lure them closer and therefore ordered not to open fire immediately, as if pretending to be useless soldiers. As a result, the Turkish infantry came so close to the Girsov fortifications that Suvorov, who was standing in the open, miraculously managed to escape inside. The Turks were met by Russian buckshot and, not expecting its squall, rushed in all directions. In pursuit of the fleeing Turks, Suvorov sent Hussars, who drove the enemy further 30 they stopped only because the horses were exhausted.
After the conclusion of peace with Turkey, Suvorov was already flying in a mail carriage to Moscow, urgently summoned by the Empress for a special assignment.
This special assignment was not quite the usual role for Suvorov - the capture and delivery of the state criminal Emelyan Pugachev.
To this end, Suvorov gathered three companies of soldiers in Tsaritsyn, 200 kazakov and 2 at the head of this detachment, he followed in the footsteps of an elusive rebel who had fled to the Volga.
On the way, it turned out that Pugachev had already been captured by his own people and taken to Uralsk. Suvorov arrived there, and the commandant handed Pugachev over to Suvorov. An iron cage was made, which was installed on a cart and Pugachev was put in it, shackled hand and foot.
Suvorov personally escorted Pugachev's cage from Uralsk to Simbirsk, where he handed over his prisoner to Panin. From there, Pugachev was escorted to Moscow, where he was executed 10 January 1775 years.
After that, Suvorov was given an army of 80 000 people for the final suppression of the Pugachev rebellion.
As a reward for his service, Suvorov was awarded a sword studded with diamonds.
Having chosen the military career to which he had already given twenty years of his life, Suvorov was still a bachelor by the age of forty. His only love was the army, so he didn't even think about starting a family. But the elderly father persuaded Alexander to enter into marriage.
In 1775 In the same year, Suvorov married the daughter of his colleague, Prince I. A. Prozorovsky, Princess Varvara Ivanovna.
The following year, Suvorov's father died, and he came to Moscow to find solace from grief in his family life. However, military affairs again called him to feats, and he rushed off to his soldiers.
Second Turkish War
In 1787 year Suvorov turned 57 years.
After the conclusion of peace between Russia and Turkey passed 13 years. However, this peace was a burden to Turkey, and it decided to launch a new military campaign.
In August 1787 Two years later, Constantinople declared a new war on Russia.
This war was clearly not at the right time for Russia: It had just begun to develop the land it had taken from Turkey in the first military campaign, building ships, building fortresses, and doing a lot of work, when it became clear that Turkey was once again in need.
Russia had to urgently relocate its troops, as a result of which the defense of the most important section of the border was entrusted to Suvorov.
This time the commander-in-chief was Prince Potemkin.
Battle of Kinburn
After the conclusion of peace after the first Turkish campaign, the fortress of Ochakov remained in the hands of the Turks, although geographically it was now on Russian soil.
Near Ochakov, the Turkish fleet was constantly stationed, which intended to attack the Russian fortress of Kinburn, which protruded far out to sea on a narrow spit.
Turkish fleet consisting of 18 frigates and 38 Small ships began to bombard Kinburn and simultaneously landed their troops on the Kinburn spit.
This completely paralyzed Potemkin, who fell into a kind of sluggish stupor. Suvorov, as always, helped him out.
Suvorov decided to use the same technique as under Girsov in 1773 year. He ordered not to open any fire to let the Turks get closer. "Let them all come out," said Suvorov.
The fight was terrible. The Russian infantry stood to the death, but the Turks pressed on. Suvorov rushed forward, shouting ," I'm here!.. Follow me!"..» But at the same moment his horse's muzzle was blown off by a ball and he fell. The soldiers rushed to save their general. Suvorov was hit in the arm by a bullet. He washed it out with seawater, bandaged it quickly, and then went back to the fight.
The Turkish fleet approached and bombarded the Russian troops with bombs and buckshot. Suvorov was hit by buckshot in the left side, below the heart, from which he collapsed without memory.
The Russians and Turks were mixed up so that it was impossible to make out who was who. The Turks were driven out, but Suvorov got this victory dearly: half of the garrison died in this battle, defending Kinburn: the Russians were killed 200 and injured 800 human. The Turks participated in 5300 people, of which no more than 700 survived.
The Turkish fleet retreated to Constantinople.
Suvorov was awarded the Order of St. John the Baptist. St. Andrew the First-Called, about which he proudly wrote to his beloved daughter Natasha, whom he affectionately called Suvorochka.
Siege of Ochakov
At Kinburn, the Turks were dealt a serious blow, but this was not the end of the war. The Turks were sitting quietly in their Ochakov and were not going to leave.
The Russian army was moving at a snail's pace from different places and gathered for an incredibly long time, which angered and irritated Suvorov, who was used to decisive and quick actions.
In 1788 This year, the slow siege of Ochakov began, during which Suvorov was exhausted by the indecision and incompetence of the commander-in-chief.
Finally, at his own peril and risk, Suvorov decided on his own offensive, without waiting for the order of the cautious Potemkin.
The Turks had just made a sortie from the fortress, and Suvorov immediately ordered a bayonet charge. The Turks came out and came out in thousands. Suvorov reinforced the reinforcements of his grenadiers, and finally led the regiments to attack.
Now it was time to send the whole army to help Suvorov and get the victory. Suvorov sent an adjutant to the slow-witted Potemkin with a request to support him with reinforcements. Potemkin wept with anger and frustration, not knowing what to do.
Victory was already practically in Suvorov's hands, he would have taken Ochakov even without Potemkin, because his soldiers were already on the ramparts, almost with one foot in the fortress, but a catastrophe occurred: Suvorov was wounded in the neck, so that a bullet got stuck in the back of the head. Suvorov had the courage to cover the wound with his hand and gallop to his own. Instead, he left Lieutenant-General Bibikov.
But Bibikov missed the moment, did not figure out in time what to do, was confused that there were no reinforcements, then the Turks came to their senses and began to push the Russians, as a result, several hundred soldiers died under the sabres of the janissaries.: 3 an officer and 150 private soldiers were killed and 6 officers and 200 some privates were wounded.
When Suvorov's bullet was cut out, he lost consciousness. When they unsaddled his horse, on which he returned from the battlefield, it fell down dead from wounds.
The victory was not just a defeat, but a disgrace. This disgrace crossed out all of Suvorov's past victories.
Potemkin didn't want to see him. He sent him a letter reprimanding him for the useless death of soldiers, and a real resignation hung over Suvorov.
Meanwhile, winter has arrived. Suvorov was slowly recovering, and things were just as slow at Ochakov. Frosts hit under 20 degrees. Russian soldiers froze to death in dugouts, suffering from a lack of food and clothing. 30 people died of cold and hunger a day-40 human. Hundreds of horses fell.
6 December's 1788 year Potemkin with a sin in half risked to go to the assault on Ochakov, during 23-x degree frost. The fight was short but tough. The Russians lost more than 3,000 men killed.
Potemkin scolded Suvorov for the unnecessary loss of life during his unauthorized assault, although he himself froze for 4 after a month of inactivity, more people than Suvorov died in battle. But at Suvorov, people died at least in battle, and at Potemkin-in general, just like that.
But these obvious mistakes did not prevent Potemkin from leaving for the capital to revel in the victory that should have belonged to Suvorov.
The Empress showered Potemkin with awards: a field marshal's baton with diamonds, a sword with diamonds and the Order of St. George I degree.
Here, in joy, they remembered the disgraced Suvorov and also called him. There was nothing to reward Suvorov for: he didn't win Ochakov, but they remembered that he won Kinburn, and they awarded him again for Kinburn with a special diamond feather on his hat.
Battle of the Rymnik River
This battle went down in history because it was forever connected with the name of Suvorov.
Meanwhile, Austria joined Russia's war against Turkey.
The commander of the Austrian army, the Prince of Coburg, informed Suvorov that the Turkish vizier was marching on him with an army in 100 000 people, and begged for help.
Suvorov arrived so quickly and so quietly that when the vizier, who was drinking coffee, was informed that Suvorov had arrived and was already fighting, the cup fell out of his hands. The vizier fled in terror across the river called Rymnik, where he soon died of shame.
The Prince of Coburg rejoiced with delight, and all Austria rejoiced with him.
On behalf of Austria, Suvorov was granted the title of Count of the Roman Empire, and on the part of Russia, the name "Rymniksky" and the Order of St. George I degree were added to this title. From now on, his last name was Count Suvorov-Rymniksky.
25 November's Potemkin ordered Suvorov to take Izmail.
I must say that Ishmael was at that time one of the most powerful and proud fortresses in Europe, the garrison of which was equal to an entire army – 40 000 people.
To attempt to storm this formidable bastion was either the greatest folly or the greatest feat.
Only Suvorov or no one else could take Ismail by storm. The only hope was for his military gift from God, the genius mind of a commander and Lady luck.
Suvorov personally taught the soldiers how to put ladders, how to climb walls and fight on ramparts, because they had to defeat the enemy twice as strong as they were.
In 5 It's about seven o'clock this morning. 9-y columns moved to the assault. By the way, 6-The 1st column was commanded by an unknown Major General Golenishchev-Kutuzov.
To 8 By morning, the Suvorov units had captured the outer fortifications.
Kaplan-Giray defended himself fiercely along with his five sons, who soon fell one after the other, and their father was the last to fall on their troupes. Among the defeated were also 60 pasha.
Even women who did not want to give up fought.
To 4 By one o'clock in the afternoon, Ishmael lay in a sea of blood, one giant mass grave.
Ishmael was taken.
Suvorov was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the Life Guards of the Preobrazhensky Regiment, which was very disappointing, because he was counting on the field marshal's baton.
Everyone considered the main character of Ishmael Potemkin, who threw a feast for the whole of St. Petersburg in his Tauride Palace, while Suvorov – the true culprit of this greatest victory, was not even invited to this celebration.
Suvorov's triumph was gradually turning into disgrace.
Out of business
Under the guise of an important task, he was sent by Catherine to Finland – to inspect the borders and put them on alert. However, Suvorov understood that he was simply being removed out of sight.
In 1792 In the following year, Suvorov is appointed chief of the troops of the Ekaterinoslav province and Taurida, that is, the Crimea, and sent there.
The Polish Uprising
Suvorov did not lose hope that he would still be needed, and waited for his time.
The need for it arose in connection with the events in Poland, where the uprising led by Tadeusz Kosciuszka began.
It seemed that they tried to do without Suvorov as much as they could.
At first, Catherine wanted to appoint Rumyantsev as the commander-in-chief of the army in Poland. But by that time Rumyantsev was already 70 he was old and sick, so he refused.
At the same time, Rumyantsev himself pointed out Ekaterina to Suvorov: it seemed that Suvorov did not age, and in his own years 64 Goda was as alert and energetic as a young man.
So the post of commander-in-chief of troops in Poland went to Suvorov.
Thanks to the special skillful training of soldiers and the famous Suvorov speed of transitions, Kosciuszko was surrounded near the town of Maciejewica. Trying to escape, he got bogged down in a swamp, was wounded by a pike and taken prisoner.
Kosciuszka's captivity was the end of Poland.
30,000 confederates locked themselves in Prague, trying to negotiate with Suvorov. Suvorov's answer was one: immediate surrender of arms and submission to the legitimate authority of the king.
The Confederates chose to die on the ruins of Prague rather than surrender, rather than decide their own fate. Their defeat was disastrous: 30 000 people died in the city itself, 2000 drowned in the Vistula River, 1500 was captured, 800 A man escaped to Warsaw.
For his victory in this Polish campaign, Suvorov was promoted to General Field Marshal.
In the link
6 November's 1796 year died Catherine II.
Suvorov experienced this as his own personal grief. But this was not all the trouble that awaited the great field marshal.
The nervous and hysterical Emperor Paul ascended to the throne.
Under his rule, new rules were introduced in the army: the Prussian-style military uniform was introduced, the iron drill of soldiers and, practically, the dictatorship of the monarchy. Any initiative was suppressed and punished.
Before Suvorov had time to look back, the order came down on him: "Since there is no war at the moment, Field Marshal Suvorov is retiring from service." It was a resignation.
Suvorov's farewell to his beloved Fanagoria Grenadier regiment was very touching. Suvorov went to the regiment in a field marshal's uniform, with all orders and regalia, and delivered a farewell speech, calling on them to be loyal to the sovereign and the fatherland. Then he took off his medals and placed them on the drum with the words: "I leave here all that I have earned with you!".
Suvorov went to Moscow, where he had a small house to meet old age in the family of his beloved daughter.
However, Suvorov was too unconventional, did not fit into the new military machine of Paul, so he irritated and hindered the emperor even in retirement.
A policeman came to Suvorov and told him that he must immediately leave for his village of Konchanskoe.
It was no longer just a resignation, but a banishment. Suvorov met her very courageously. When was he allowed to go to the training camp 4 However, he stated that even beating the Turks was enough for him to get together in just one hour. Then he took the travel box with the documents, put on his old raincoat, said goodbye to his family and left.
There was a traveling carriage outside the house, but Suvorov refused to get into it, saying that he even went to the palace in a mail cart, and true to his word, he got into the last one. The police were forced to sit down with him, because they had to accompany him everywhere. Thus, Suvorov was sent to the village, practically, under escort.
In the village, he led an active lifestyle: he got up early, then went to the bell tower to ring, at matins or mass he served as sexton and gave the priest a censer, read the apostle or sang in the church choir. In his spare time, he played with the village children or listened to local stories.
When Pavel came to his senses, he must have already regretted his decision regarding Suvorov.
One fine day, at the gate of the house where Suvorov spent his days, a road cart stopped, a military courier jumped out of it and brought Suvorov a package with the words "Field Marshal Suvorov"written on it.
"It's not for me," Suvorov snapped, " if I'm a field marshal, I should be in the army, not here in custody." Discouraged, the courier was forced to take an unopened package with him.
After some time, another courier arrived with an invitation for the Field Marshal to come to St. Petersburg, which was sent by Suvorov to the same address.
Finally, a third courier handed Suvorov a handwritten letter from Paul I, in which the emperor informed that the allies were asking Suvorov to lead their army.
It was a complete triumph for Suvorov, which replaced his humiliation.
The War in Italy
Suvorov arrived in St. Petersburg and appeared before Pavel, who had changed his anger to mercy, who personally put the chain of the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Nicholas on the heroic field Marshal. St. John of Jerusalem.
All of Suvorov's friends and colleagues who were dismissed at the same time as him were returned to service by Pavel, including Suvorov's permanent adjutant, Captain Stavrakov.
At Suvorov's request, Pavel also rewarded the police officer who had supervised him in the village and transferred his son, an army officer, to the Guards.
As Suvorov began to discuss his military plans, he realized that he and his army were only playing a secondary role in the war that Austria was waging in Italy. He was left to be an assistant in this alien war, not the main character. But it was still better than nothing.
He left for Vienna to begin his duties as commander-in-chief of the Russian army abroad, where he arrived 15 martha.
In the morning, the whole of Vienna took to the streets to meet the famous commander.
Emperor Franz awarded Suvorov the rank of Austrian Field Marshal, after which Suvorov took the oath of office for a new rank in the church of St. Stephen at the meeting of the Austrian court.
The Russian troops passing through Vienna greeted their old commander with tears in their eyes.
Suvorov met his old friends, the Prince of Coburg and the Prince de Lin.
Meanwhile, in Italy, the French defeated and overthrew the king of Naples and established a republic there.
Under the command of Suvorov there were only 20 The rest were Austrians, whom he immediately ordered to be trained to use bayonets.
Battle of Lodi
The first major battle between the Allied forces under the command of Suvorov and the French under the command of General Moreau took place at the town of Lodi. It continued 12 hours, after which the French lost killed 2000 a man and the same number were taken prisoner.
Turin presented Suvorov with a sword decorated with diamonds.
Suvorov recaptured the former possessions of Austria and the King of Sardinia from the French. He wanted to return the King of Sardinia to his territories, but the Austrians were against it, as they were primarily pursuing their own interests.
Suvorov was particularly hampered by the Austrian Military Council, under the leadership of First Minister Tugut. Not used to being on the sidelines, Suvorov felt very uncomfortable. He felt envious and jealous of himself as a stranger on the part of the Austrian generals, despite the fact that he had won them one victory after another.
On the other hand, the King of Sardinia presented Suvorov with the Orders of the Annonsiad, St. Maurice and Lazarus, the rank of field marshal of the Sardinian troops, as well as the title of prince with the right to pass it down through his first-born children, and even expressed his desire to serve under Suvorov in the Italian army as a sign of gratitude.
So, gradually Suvorov conquered almost the entire northern part of Italy. Then the French General MacDonald went to join him with Moreau and together beat Suvorov. Suvorov himself went to meet them, and a battle took place on the Trebia River, which lasted 3 of the day.
Suvorov asked the Austrians for reinforcements, but they were still not there, and the Suvorov soldiers, tired of the heavy march, had to fight instead of rest. 3 of the day.
Suvorov himself at this time was already 70 For years, however, he never left the battlefield or dismounted from his horse, cheering on the weakened soldiers. At the sight of Suvorov, the soldiers were so inspired that they hit the enemy with renewed force, and the French decided that new reinforcements had come to them.
The battle ended with a complete victory for Suvorov.
Meanwhile, in Southern Italy, the Neapolitans themselves rebelled and, with the help of a small Russian force, also defeated the French.
French troops were driven out of all Neapolitan and Papal possessions, and legitimate authority was fully restored.
For the liberation of Italy, Suvorov was granted the title of Prince of the Russian Empire, with the right to be called Italian and pass it on both through the male and female line.
In addition, the Emperor Paul ordered the entire Russian army, even in his own presence, the Prince of Italy, Count Suvorov-Rymniksky, to pay all military honors, similar to those given to the person of His Imperial Majesty.
Such a triumph ended for Suvorov campaign 1799 the year in which the Austrians under his command won 10 They took 3000 guns as trophies from the battles., 200 000 guns, 80 000 captives and conquered 25 fortresses.
For Suvorov himself, this campaign more than compensated for all the humiliation and shame that he had endured for nothing from Paul I, who had begun his reign so strangely.
The War in Switzerland
After a triumphant campaign in Italy, which ended with the complete victory of the Russian army under the command of Suvorov, she had to make another most incredible victory – to conquer nature in the face of the Alpine Mountains.
The situation developed in such a way that after Suvorov and his army won a victory for Austria in Italy, neither Suvorov nor the Russian army were more needed by the Viennese court and hindered more than they were useful.
For Suvorov and his army, a strange campaign was chosen that would remove the Russians from the main theater of operations, but at the same time keep them on hand just in case.
Suvorov's army needed to get from Italy to Switzerland, for which it had to make the great crossing of the Alps to invade Franche-Comté.
It is very strange that for the Russian army, which is not used to the mountainous terrain, this is the most difficult, most dangerous and most difficult route was chosen.
Most likely, the plan of conduct of military operations was dictated by the Austrians, Suvorov was just a guest commander, and could not really choose the road at will. The Russian army played the role of a battering ram in this war, and Austria sent this battering ram at its discretion.
Thus, the Russian army marched to Switzerland, not knowing what was waiting for it there, but fervently believing in its beloved leader, ready to follow him to the end of the world.
The weather was disgusting: it rained incessantly, and the soldiers were soaked to the skin. At the halts, it was difficult to find firewood to light a fire and keep warm.
Together with Suvorov, all the hardships of this campaign were shared by Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich,who joined the Russian army in Italy.
The situation of the army gradually became disastrous: the soldiers were starving, because the Austrians did not supply the promised mules for luggage, and the Cossack horses of the Suvorov army were not suitable for this purpose.
The shoes of soldiers and officers alike quickly became worn out, the soles lagged behind, and the feet were rubbed in blood. Rebinder walked around the troops in boots without soles.
On the approaches to the top of Saint-Gautard, the Russian army split up. One half under Bagration's command began to storm it from the right, climbing and clinging to ledges and cliffs: the soldiers hoisted each other up, resting their bayonets.
Climbing the mountains was incredibly difficult. Because of the fog, I couldn't see anything, so I had to climb, almost by touch.
Another part of the army began to attack the French garrison, which was entrenched on the top of the mountain. Only with the third attack was it possible to break the resistance of the French, who saw Bagration's leading soldiers suddenly appear in their rear.
Saint-Gautard was taken. The brilliant debut of the Russians in this mountain war came at a cost of loss 2000 human.
Now the Russian army had to descend on the other side of Saint-Gautard after the French had escaped.
The descent was even worse: the steep icy slope made it impossible to stay on their feet, so many soldiers preferred to just sit down and go down the mountain.
Then the path of the Russian army went along the bank of the Reis River and went directly to the Devil's Bridge – an outlandish structure of nature itself, consisting of two stone arches.
At the sight of the approaching enemy in the face of Russian soldiers, the French in a panic began to destroy the small arch of the bridge to slow down the Russians, however, they did not have time to destroy everything and fled.
The Russians immediately set about repairing the bridge in a hurry: they dismantled the nearest shed, brought logs and planks, threw them over the gap,and began to fasten them together with what they could.
Prince Meshchersky donated his officer's scarf to this cause, and other officers followed suit. So the semblance of a ferry was restored.
However, when he reached Altorf, Suvorov was horrified to find that the road ended, and the further path passes through water. What the Austrian generals were thinking when they approved this disposition for Suvorov is unknown. Only thanks to them, Suvorov found himself in a stone trap, from which, practically, there was no way out.
Suvorov's entire military career threatened to end in disaster in this mountain gorge, where the Russian army was driven by the treacherous Austrians.
The only escape route from here was a goat trail that barely fit a human foot. You had to walk one at a time, on slippery clay or small crumbling stones, where each step could be the last. A terrible trail of broken and maimed soldiers, horses, and mules followed the unfortunate army.
When we went down to the Mutten valley, instead of the allies, we found the French under the command of Massen, who was so confident of victory that he declared to the captured Russians: "I will soon bring your Suvorov and his grand Duke to you."
Suvorov's miserable little army found itself alone in front of the enemy, with no hope of anyone's help. All the allies were either defeated or simply retreated, leaving Suvorov to fend for himself.
It was clear that Suvorov no longer needed to think about how to help the allies who had betrayed him, but to save the honor of Russia, save Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich and save the remnants of the Russian army, which the Austrians had dragged into this fatal and disastrous war, using it as cannon fodder.
Thus, one half of the Russian army under the command of the intrepid Bagration began to cut through the French, providing an exit from the Mutten Valley, and the other half covered it from the rear.
Realizing that victory in this battle was their only way out of this stone trap, the Russians fought with such ferocity that the French were completely panicked and fled.
As a result, Suvorov's troops were able to climb Mount Bragel and arrive at Glaris, after which Suvorov decided to withdraw Russian troops from Switzerland.
Dead tired, hungry, soaked to the skin, and with a cold, the Russian army managed to use its last strength to cross the Ringenkopf crossing and reach Bavaria, where it stopped for winter quarters and received the long-awaited rest and food.
11 October's Paul I broke off the alliance with Austria, which had almost destroyed his army and its best commander, and ordered Suvorov to return to Russia.
Thus ended this tragic Swiss campaign for the Russian army and for Suvorov himself, which, as a result of the intrigues and treachery of the Austrians, turned out to be a complete defeat in the military sense, but on the other hand, an unprecedented victory of another kind was won – the victory of the Russian spirit over the forces of nature.
29 October's Suvorov was awarded the rank of Generalissimo for his unyielding courage in the battle with the elements and saving the Russian army and the honor of Russia.
The tragic Swiss campaign was the glorious end of Suvorov's entire military career, putting an end to his entire great military path.
Illness and demise
An unsuccessful Swiss company, freezing rain, snow and wind, as well as constant stress and worries about the fate of the army, which was caught in a stone captivity, undermined the health of Suvorov, who at that time was already well 70 years.
Just before the Russian troops left Bavaria, Suvorov fell seriously ill, so he was forced to stay in Prague, and the army left for Russia without him.
Suvorov began to suffer from a cough, which appeared, most likely, as a result of hypothermia in the Alps, and in addition, the whole body was covered with a rash, which turned into ulcers and boils.
Meanwhile, in St. Petersburg, a real triumph was being prepared for Suvorov: rooms were prepared for him in the Winter Palace, court carriages were ordered to meet him, troops were to stand along the streets of St. Petersburg and greet the generalissimo with shouts of " hurrah!".
All this made a beneficial impression on Suvorov, he became more cheerful and felt better.
However, Suvorov did not have time to recover properly, as for no reason at all, a new incomprehensible disgrace of Paul I fell upon him, the reason for which was the fact that in the army Suvorov was left the post of general on duty, canceled by Paul I.
Apparently, this was enough to cause another shift in Paul's psyche, and the hysterical emperor deprived the elderly commander of his favor. All solemn preparations for the meeting of Suvorov were canceled.
This new blow finally crippled Suvorov, and the disease began to progress with renewed vigor.
He entered St. Petersburg in the evening 20 Martha, drove through the empty streets to Khvostov's house and immediately went to bed for good.
Agony soon followed: Suvorov was in the grip of war dreams and a state of battle delirium, incoherently muttering commands, imagining himself again among the soldiers, remaining devoted to his only love – the army to the end.
6 May 1880 then the great general's heart stopped beating. Suvorov lay with a calm face, as if he had fallen asleep. The great warrior was interred in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, on the tombstone there is a laconic inscription:"Here lies Suvorov."