Biography of Joan of Arc
Why was Joan of Arc executed?
About the legendary Amazon of the middle ages – Joan of Arc, also known as the maid of Orleans, is still not silent disputes and legends.
During the hundred Years ' war between France and England, Joan was the only female commander of the French army, won several brilliant victories, breathed fighting spirit into the almost defeated homeland, thanks to her, the crown Prince of France was officially crowned and ascended the throne, after which she was shamefully betrayed by her king and handed over to the English, who accused her of witchcraft and burned at the stake.
The fate of this amazing woman, her heroism and martyrdom are so amazing and stunning that in our time she is a national heroine of France.
The future heroine was born 6 January 1412 year in the village of Domremy on the border between champagne and Lorraine. The family was either impoverished nobles, or, on the contrary, well – to-do peasants-information has been lost for centuries.
Jeanne's father is Jacques d'Arc, mother-Isabella de Wooton, nicknamed "the Roman" because of her many pilgrimages to the eternal city. The prefix " d "before her father's surname" Arc " still gives reason to believe that Joan was of noble origin, in any case, this can easily explain her ability to ride a horse and wield a sword.
When Jeanne was about 13 when she was about six years old, she began to hear mysterious voices, and since she was a deeply religious and God-fearing girl, she decided that the Archangel Michael was speaking to her, as well as saints Catherine and Margaret.
Jeanne decided that heaven was calling her to stand up for France, which had already been almost conquered by England in the decades-long hundred Years ' war.
The hundred years ' war
The war between France and England for the French throne was called the Centenary war, because it lasted, in total, with small interruptions, about a hundred years. 1337 by 1453 years.
King Edward III of England claimed the French throne on the grounds that his mother, Queen Isabella of France, was from the dynasty of kings of France. To this end, he invaded the territory of France and began military operations.
Before 1415 for two years, the French more or less managed to repel the attacks of the British and preserve their territories. However, king Henry V of England, who succeeded Edward III on the throne, managed to rally the army and launched a decisive offensive.
In 1415 in the infamous battle of Agincourt, virtually the entire flower of the French aristocracy was captured by the British.
Meanwhile, the situation inside France itself is no less disastrous. Formally, the country was ruled by a half-mad Karl VI at the same time, two branches of the Valois dynasty competed for the throne: the house of Orleans headed by the Comte d'armagnac (Armagnacs) and the house of Burgundy (bourguignons).
As a result, there were two parallel governments in France: the bourguignons, with the formal head of Isabella of Bavaria, and the Armagnacs, led by the Dauphin Charles.
In 1420 the Burgundians, led by Isabella of Bavaria, wife of the deranged but legitimate king Charles of France VI in fact, they betray France and become allies of the British.
They sign a Treaty with the English, according to which the English king Henry V marries the daughter of Isabella of Bavaria and Karl VI "to the Princess Catherine of Valois, and to avoid the mad but still alive Charles VI as well as his legitimate son and heir Charles the future VI I, effectively becomes the ruler of France.
Under the Treaty also Isabella of Bavaria and Charles VI until the end of their lives, they retain the titles of king and Queen, but with their death, these titles are annulled, and France as a country ceases to exist, joins England and becomes one whole Anglo-French Kingdom.
Thus the traitorous Burgundians, together with the traitorous Isabella of Bavaria, sold France to the English.
The British already controlled the entire North of France in the area of the Loire castles and its South in the face of Aquitaine. The rebellious Orleans, which did not want to submit to the English invaders, prevented the British from completely uniting their possessions. The orleanians fought fiercely, but the forces were disastrously unequal, and Orleans was about to fall.
At this very time, a provincial girl named Jeanne appears on the political horizon, who is eager to save France from the English invaders.
Path to the king
Divine voices reveal to Joan that she is chosen from above to first lift the siege of Orleans, and then liberate all of France, and she will also crown and put on the throne the rightful heir to the throne – Charles VI I.
In 16 then Jeanne went to Vaucouleurs, went to captain Robert de Baudricourt, and announced her mission. Naturally, no one wanted to listen to her, she was irritably dismissed, and she was sent back home.
However, the following year Jeanne appeared again, and this time the surprised captain listened to her words, especially after Jeanne accurately described the upcoming "herring battle" and its disastrous outcome.
In a few days, to be exact, 12 February 1429 this year, indeed, the infamous battle of the defenders of Orleans with an English wagon train loaded with smoked herring came up from Paris.
The train was accompanied by horse archers, of whom there were only a few 1000 people, as well as French militias who fought on the side of the British, in about the same number, total 2000 human.
They were intercepted by a large French detachment under the command of the Comte de Clermont, consisting of almost 4,000 people, that is, the French were twice as strong as the enemy, besides, the French had their own artillery (small-caliber guns), and the British had only light archers.
And yet, despite such a superior advantage in strength, and such powerful weapons, which, it would seem, should have provided the French with a complete victory, the French were not able to correctly use their advantage.
The lack of coordination in the actions of the commanders caused chaos and confusion in their ranks, and instead of a guaranteed victory, it led to a complete and shameful defeat, and the artillery could not save the situation, because it turned out to be completely useless.
The defenders of Orleans were completely discouraged, and the city was on the eve of surrender.
All this was exactly foretold by Joan, after which captain Robert de Baudricourt decided that the amazing girl should be shown to the king so that he could see her with his own eyes.
Just for a moment, it was Robert de Baudricourt who provided Jeanne with men's clothing for convenience, in particular, chaperone, hook and chausses, so that she would not attract too much attention from the soldiers.
Normal and adequate men understood that a woman who is among men, for her own safety, it is better to wear a man's suit.
However, the Inquisition court, which will later condemn Joan to death, accused Her of wearing this particular garment at the Rouen trial, which indicates that the judges were biased against her.
Chaperone-a complex medieval headdress, similar to a hood, with a long and narrow end, and a Cape that fell to the shoulders in the form of a scarf or Cape.
Hook-upper men's clothing, consisting of one whole piece of cloth with a hole for the head, one half of which covered the chest, and the other-the back, without buttons or fasteners. A kind of primitive cloak or Cape, which usually reached about the hip.
According to eyewitnesses, Jeanne's hook was green and scarlet, that is, it corresponded to the heraldic colors of the Orleans house.
Chausses – men's tights or tight tights, common men's clothing in the middle ages, as long men's trousers came into fashion only after The French revolution.
Immediately, in Vaucouleurs, Jeanne was joined by de Baudricourt's squire, Jean de Metz, who later became her loyal companion and colleague.
It is interesting that when they first met, Jean de Metz asked Jeanne who her master was, to which The girl replied: "God".
Later, Jean de Metz helped Jeanne get a horse and uniforms.
Through 11 a few days later, accompanied by the trusted companions of Jean de Metz and his friend Bertrand de Poulangy, the brave girl arrived at Chinon, the residence of the Dauphin Charles.
Moreover, Charles also decided to test Joan, whether she was really led by higher forces, and arranged a test for her: he put another person on the throne instead of himself, and he stood in the crowd of courtiers. But Jeanne pointed it out unmistakably.
She declared that she was sent by God to liberate France from English rule, and asked for a detachment of soldiers to do this.
At the same time, Joan impressed Charles and his entire court with her excellent ability to ride in the saddle, as well as her masterful use of weapons, which indicates her noble origin and upbringing.
However, Charles still hesitated before entrusting his fate and the fate of France into the hands of a woman.
He had the midwives examine Joan to see if She was really a virgin, as he said.
After that, he sent her to theologians in Poitiers to test her loyalty to the Church.
Jeanne d'Arc – commander-in-chief of the French army
Only after Joan's impeccable reputation was confirmed on all sides did Charles venture to appoint the brave girl commander-in-chief of the French army.
It may seem improbable, but all the famous French generals who tried their best to keep Orleans from surrendering to the British, had to go under the command of Joan.
Even the Prince of the blood, the Prince of Alencon, was appointed chief of staff under Joan.
It turns out that Jeanne was above them all in rank, only the Dauphin Charles was above her.
Most likely, the reason for such a dizzying military career of Joan was that she assured Charles that she was sent to put him on the throne.
After this appointment, special armor was made for Joan, and she received permission to wear men's clothing from the theological Commission of Poitiers.
This fact should be especially noted, because later the court of Inquisition will build all its main charges against Joan on it.
At Joan's direction, a sword designed specifically for Her was discovered in the Church of Saint Catherine de Fierbois. According to legend, it was the sword of Charlemagne himself.
Joan then proceeded to Blois, where the army she was to command was to be assembled.
The news that a girl sent by God was at the head of the army instantly spread all over France. The troops, who had already lost all hope of victory, cheered up and took heart again.
Many volunteers who want to fight under the command of the "Holy virgin"flock to Blois.
From Blois, Joan's army marches on Orleans.
Liberation Of Orleans
29 April 1429 year Jeanne with a small detachment penetrates the besieged Orleans and already 4 May her army attacks the Bastion of Saint-Loup.
Then, one after the other, several battles follow, each of which ends with the invariable victory of the French, as a result of which the British 8 May finally lift the siege of Orleans and retreat.
During 4 days of Jeanne d'Ark coped with the task that the French commanders could not solve for several years.
It was after the liberation of Orleans that Jeanne d'Arc and began to be called the Maid of Orleans, thus giving her glory and honor for her first victory over the English.
Until now 8 May in Orleans, it is celebrated as city day.
The French army rejoices: this first victory after years on their knees so inspired the French, who once again believed in their own strength, that it is the beginning of the liberation of all of France.
The victorious liberation March through the country of Joan of Arc begins.
France is fast approaching her triumph, and Joan is just as fast approaching her doom, for the triumph of France was destined to be the beginning of the end of the legendary maid of Orleans.
After recapturing Orleans, Joan again rushes into battle, however, the heir Charles for unknown reasons slows down a new campaign of Joan on the bastions of the Loire – the main Fort post of the British in Northern France.
Or maybe he's jealous of the fame of a simple country girl who gives him one victory after another on a silver platter, while he holed up in his Chinon, even though he could have fought for the sake of decency.
Whether he considers it beneath his dignity that when and where to attack, Jeanne decides, and not he.
In any case, a new campaign on the Loire valley captured by the British has only just begun. 9 June's.
However, thanks to the fearlessness and bravery of the army under Jeanne's command, She again won a series of brilliant victories in the Loire operation:
12 June's Jargeau, a small town on the banks of the Loire, which the British turned into their stronghold, was liberated. Jeanne personally led the attack, despite the fact that a stone shell split her helmet in half, and she was slightly wounded.
15 June's Joan's army marches on Maine-sur-Loire.
16 June's there is an offensive on Beaugency.
18 June's 1429 during the year, the decisive battle of Pat takes place, a complete victory in which for the first time in many years opens the way for the French to Reims and Paris.
Two prominent English generals were completely put to shame in this battle: Talbot was captured, and Fastolfe ignominiously escaped.
Within one month, Joan's army had smashed the English to smithereens and driven them from the bastions of the Loire, something the French had been unable to do for several years.
The battle of Pat was not only a brilliant conclusion to the Loire operation to liberate Northern France, but also a turning point in the course of the entire hundred Years ' war, which ultimately led to the complete expulsion of the British from France.
You can call it a coincidence, a feat, God's Providence, or just a miracle, but the fact remains that it was Jeanne who did it.
After such a triumph of Joan's army, her "bloodless campaign" on Reims begins: demoralized Englishmen surrender one city after another without firing a shot, who immediately open their gates to the victorious French army.
Coronation in Reims
Jeanne needed Reims not only because it needed to be freed from the English, but also for a second, more strategic reason: Reims was traditionally considered the "city of kings", since all French kings were crowned there.
And after the liberation of Reims, Jeanne undertakes the next Grand act: 17 July's 1429 the year she arranges the solemn coronation of the Dauphin Charles, who immediately officially becomes king Charles XVII.
The Coronation Of Charles XVII it was the peak of Joan of Arc's military career and heroic deeds in the name of France.
Decline in the activity of the army of Jeanne
After the coronation, the victorious March of Joan's army slows down dramatically.
Joan insisted on an immediate attack on Paris until the British recovered from their crushing defeats in the Loire valley.
Paris, the heart of France, was the last Bastion in which the British were entrenched, and to drive them out of it was to put an end to the hundred Years ' war.
However, Karl XVII again begins to be stupid and doubtful.
The attack on the French capital was launched only in September, and then immediately stopped: Charles recalled the troops and ordered them to withdraw to the Loire, after which 21 september the army was disbanded altogether.
Military operations resumed only the following year, in the spring 1430 years passed, but very sluggishly.
Karl's Attitude XVII Jeanne's attitude changes dramatically: his courtiers, under various pretexts, constantly put various obstacles in her way and do not allow her to command more or less significant military forces.
It is understandable: Charles received from Joan the main thing that he wanted most of all-the coronation, after which he lost all interest in the folk heroine.
Jeanne becomes Karl XVII I don't need it anymore.
23 May 1430 however, Jeanne still manages to gather a small group of 400 volunteers, with whom she makes an attempt to break through to the rescue of the city of Compiegne, which was besieged by the Burgundians.
Jeanne planned to make a surprise attack, but their presence was discovered, the effect of surprise was lost, and the Burgundians, who were in the majority, began to surround Jeanne's small detachment.
Jean made the only right decision – to retreat to save the defenders of the city. She herself was in the rear guard, covering their retreat.
However, the gates to the city – the only place where one could escape-were closed to Jeanne and her squad, while most of the defenders of the city managed to hide behind its walls.
Thus, the French rearguard, along with Jeanne, was trapped and doomed.
Joan was taken prisoner, along with her brother, her squire, and her men.
The battle of Compiegne was the last battle of the hundred Years ' war in which Joan of Arc participated, and the only one in which Joan was defeated. The battle path of the folk heroine ended under the walls of Compiegne.
Not until October Karl XVII finally, he caught himself, and the long-awaited reinforcements under the command of Marshal of France Baron de Broussac approached Compiegne.
The Anglo-Burgundians, seeing that they would be caught between two fires: the inner citizens and the outer reinforcements, surrendered the city in a panic and fled.
Compiegne was liberated by the French army, but this victory came at too high a price: it cost the freedom and life of the most heroic commander of the entire hundred Years ' war – Joan of Arc.
And a legitimate question arises: where was this reinforcement before?
And why did the French army that liberated Compiegne do nothing to free and rescue Jeanne d from captivity?'Ark – your favorite commander?
The answer lies with Charles XVII.
Most likely, male chauvinism, multiplied by Royal ambitions, took its toll. Charles was annoyed that the army and the people loved and worshipped Joan more than they did him, the king.
Therefore, Charles did not allow Joan to March on Paris, which was practically within Joan's grasp, and in which victory would have ended the hundred Years ' war at once.
But then it would be that victory in the hundred Years ' war would forever belong to Joan, and not to him.
Charles was more afraid of Joan's fame than of the English.
Therefore, having received the crown from Joan, and in fact, using it, Charles simply got rid of Joan, leaving her to the mercy of fate, or rather, to the mercy of the Burgundians, who for 10 thousands of gold livres were sold to the English.
Joan was ruined by her own fame and the king's treachery, mixed up in meanness.
Jeanne's trial and sentence
23 May 1430 years later, as a result of treason, Joan was taken prisoner by the Burgundians.
Initially, she was held as a prisoner of war in the castle of Beaurevoir, which was the residence of Jean of Luxembourg, a supporter of the Burgundians. It was his knights who captured Joan.
However, shortly after her arrest, the corrupt Bishop Pierre Cauchon, who had long been in the service of the British, came to Jean and offered for Joan 10 000 gold livres.
Jean needed money, and since the king showed no interest in the prisoner (although he could have offered a good ransom for her), the Burgundian sold Joan to someone who was willing to pay well, as was customary under military laws.
But why, instead of a court-martial, did Joan end up in the hands of the French Inquisition, which was in the service of the British?
It's very simple: Cauchon intended to start a "process of faith" against Jeanne in order to present her as a witch and heretic.
This would give him the opportunity to declare the coronation of Charles XVII, arranged by Joan, illegal, since the English already had their own pretender to the French throne – nine-year-old Henry XVI.
As a result of this complex political game, Joan appeared to be in the dungeons of the Inquisition in Rouen, a Pro – English territory.
However ,the "process of faith" went with a sin in half, now and then bumping into various obstacles and obstacles.
A medical examination of the prisoner by the "ladies ' Commission" showed that she was indeed a virgin, which made it impossible to accuse her as a witch.
But the biggest problem for Cauchon was the defendant herself.
It turned out that it was almost impossible to confuse the girl who was the commander-in-chief of the French army, to take her at her word and force her to testify against herself: Jeanne had an outstanding mind and excellent intuition. In addition, she was not timid and carried herself with amazing courage and confidence.
As time passed, there was absolutely nothing to blame Jeanne for.
After that, there is a case that has remained a historical mystery: Jeanne in prison suddenly fell seriously ill and almost died. In her own words, the reason was the fish that Bishop Cauchon sent her.
Whether it was Cauchon's attempt to poison the rebellious Jeanne, or whether she was simply suffering from indigestion, is a mystery shrouded in the darkness of Cauchon's conscience.
Then there are events that defy any logical explanation, the protocols of Joan's interrogation contradict each other, they do not meet the ends, which indicates that the whole "Joan of Arc case" was fabricated and rigged.
Seeing that Jeanne does not intend to plead guilty, Cauchon builds the prosecution on those facts that do not require a confession from the defendant, but are obvious, namely, her wearing men's clothing.
This completely ignores the fact that the Commission of theologians in Poitiers gave Joan permission to wear a man's dress.
Also, all this time the girl is kept in shackles, and there are always soldiers in the cell with her, so even, sorry, Jeanne had to go to the toilet right in front of them, which made the life of the prisoner unbearable.
24 May Joan was taken to the cemetery of the Abbey of Saint-Ouen, where a bonfire was already lit, and threatened with immediate burning, forced to sign a renunciation of all her delusions that they could think of: demonic voices, blasphemy, communication with demons, and the notorious male dress (which did not give priests peace), incitement to murder (so war!), not honoring her parents (left home), pagan and demon Charmer.
Joan's divine gift to hear the voices of the saints was turned inside out and interpreted exactly the opposite: that she was possessed by the devil.
In exchange, the treacherous Cauchon promised to transfer the exhausted prisoner to a women's prison with more lenient conditions of detention.
Apparently, the endless torture of humiliation, as well as the incessant insults and bullying of the soldiers, broke the girl's will, as a result, without looking, she signed everything that was required of her, just to stop this torment, after which she either voluntarily or under pressure changed into a woman's dress.
However, 28 May the judges found that Jeanne was wearing men's clothes again (the women's ones were either stolen or taken away by force).
This was enough to indicate that Joan had once again "fallen into heresy."
30 May 1431 a year later, Joan was sentenced to excommunication and burned at the stake as an apostate and heretic. On the same day, Joan was executed in the Old square in Rouen.
It turns out that Jeanne was sentenced to be burned at the stake for wearing men's clothing, for which she was given permission in Poitiers.
It is hard to imagine a more ridiculous verdict.
Her last words were: "Bishop, I am dying because of you! I summon you to God's judgment!»
Well, God's court will certainly understand this complicated, fabricated and thoroughly fake political process.
In the meantime, what did the execution of Joan do for the English?
Aftermath of Joan of Arc's execution
It is clear to the page that this was a purely political murder, for the sake of appearances covered with a pathetic religious sign.
The English were taking revenge on Joan for the numerous and crushing defeats inflicted on them by the French army under her short command.
By killing Joan, the British hoped to deprive the French of the moral and military enthusiasm that this young village Amazon had inspired in them.
However, the British miscalculated: after a series of defeats inflicted on them by Joan of Arc, the English army could not recover.
France continued the offensive that Jeanne had inspired, and in the following year, 1432 Chartres, the nearest city to Paris, was stormed in the year.
In 1435 this year, Isabella of Bavaria and the Duke of Bedford, the main supporters and leaders of the Pro – English party, die.
Left without leaders, Burgundy concluded a peace Treaty with France against the British.
And the very next day, 1436 a year later, the French army led by Richemont entered Paris, which, due to court intrigues, Jeanne was never able to do.
Although the decisive offensive was postponed for several years, it was still carried out.
In 1449 this year, the French offensive began in Normandy – the last British stronghold on French territory .
15 April 1450 the battle of Formigny, in which the French finally recaptured Normandy from the English, took place in the year.
From battle to battle, the French army, awakened by Joan of Arc, confidently marched to complete and final victory in the hundred Years ' war.
17 July's 1453 the decisive and final battle of Castillon took place, which completely ended the hundred Years ' war.
Posthumous rehabilitation of Joan of Arc
The first chords of God's judgment, to which Jeanne called from the bonfire, were already heard in the Church. 1452 year – through 20 years after her death.
At Karl's XVII conscience awoke, and he ordered to collect and prepare all the documents relating to the case of Joan of Arc, and to conduct a second investigation.
The investigation examined all the protocols of Jeanne's interrogations, interviewed all the surviving witnesses: Jeanne's parents, her comrades-in-arms and just residents of Orleans and came to the conclusion that the grossest violations of the law and obvious lawlessness were committed during the trial of Jeanne.
As a result of this investigation, all the charges against Zhanna were refuted by the testimony of witnesses.
In 1455 the case of Joan of Arc was reviewed and the verdict was declared "legally null and void" and illegal by Pope Calixtus III.
Leading theologians even wrote a special treatise on Holy women who, for whatever reason, are forced to wear a man's costume, completely removing this ridiculous accusation from Joan (they can, after all, when they want!).
All the transcripts of Jeanne's interrogations were declared invalid and defiantly torn up in full view of the crowd.
Jeanne's good name was restored.
Cauchon, the chief Inquisitor and executioner of Joan, was cursed by his descendants.
16 May 1920 years later 500 years since the death of Joan of Arc, Pope Benedict XV he canonized the heroic defender of France and canonized her as a Saint. Her memorial day – 30 may, the day of Jeanne's death.
Nowadays, every Church in France has a statue of Jeanne d'Ark in her favorite male costume.
An alternative version of the Joan of Arc story
The tragic end of the courageous defender of France and her wild death plunged the whole country into shock and did not fit into the heads of those who adored Jeanne d'Arc of the French.
On this basis, various legends immediately began to arise about the substitution of the real Jeanne d'Ark on another woman and her miraculous salvation-people really wanted to believe that their favorite folk heroine was still alive.
There are two main directions of researchers who insist that Jeanne d'Ark didn't actually die: these are "bastardists" and "survivists".
The bastardists ' version: the Queen's daughter
"Bastardists" - from the word "bastard" (English), that is, "illegitimate or illegitimate child".
Representatives of this direction claim that Jeanne d'Arc was the illegitimate daughter of Queen Isabella of Bavaria and Duke Louis of Orleans, the brother of her husband, king Charles XVI, that is, a Princess of the Royal blood.
Interestingly, in the book "History of the Royal house" before XVIII for centuries, there was a record that Isabella and Louis, indeed, in 1407 a daughter, Jeanne, was born this year. However, in later editions, this girl Jeanne turns into the boy Philippe, who mysteriously dies.
Bastardists also claim that the very name of Jeanne "Orleans" just says that she is very directly related to the family of Louis of Orleans.
As proof of this, the bastardists cite another illegitimate son of the same Louis of Orleans-Jean dunois, who was called "the Bastard of Orleans".
Another proof of Joan's Royal origin, in their opinion, is the fact that after receiving the king in Chinon, Joan was allocated servants, retinue and given the right to unfurl her banner – a privilege that is awarded only to nobles.
Jeanne's excellent ability to sit in the saddle and her professional swordsmanship also speaks in favor of her noble origin and upbringing: she was clearly taught this, and she was taught as a boy, not as a girl. Hence, by the way, her love for men's suits.
A simple peasant woman would hardly have been able to master all this art without outside help.
In 1934 last year, the so-called "Book of Poitiers" was found in the Vatican library, that is, the records of the very theological Commission that tested Joan for her loyalty to the Church.
Theologians doubted Joan's ability to hear "voices", so they sent two monks to the girl's homeland, in the village of Domremy, to interview local residents. So, in this book, allegedly, there is a record that all the inhabitants of the village unanimously claimed that Jeanne was the daughter of Louis of Orleans. That is, for them, this circumstance was in the order of things.
There, in Chinon, Jeanne underwent a medical examination confirming her virginity. Two Queens conducted this inspection: Charles ' wife XVII - Mary of Anjou and her mother Yolande of Aragon.
And in 1431 last year, while still in captivity in Rouen, Joan underwent the same medical examination that this time was conducted by the Duchess of Bedford.
I don't think three Queens would have condescended to examine a peasant woman. On the other hand, only representatives of the Royal dynasty had the right to examine a girl of the Royal dynasty. Then it all fits together.
And what about Jeanne's so-called "foster family"? Where did it come from?
The origin of the Arc family.
Bastardists claim That the d'arcs were not really ordinary peasants, but an impoverished branch of the nobility, which temporarily lost its nobility due to ruin.
This version is supported by the "noble" prefix " d " before the surname Arc (recall the similar surname of d'artagnan).
So, if Jeanne d'Ark is an illegitimate Princess of the blood and the daughter of Isabella of Bavaria, so it turns out that Karl XVII and his sister, Princess Catherine, the one who married king Henry of England XV "they're Jeanne's brother and sister.
That would easily explain why Charles left himself and his country in Joan's hands – in the hands of His sister, even if she was his half-sister!
But then it is absolutely confusing that Charles abandoned his own sister to the mercy of the English and did not even try to save her? After all, then it turns out that Joan was betrayed not just by the king, but also by her brother!
Did all these kings and Queens, Dukes and duchesses, let their half-sister die at the stake?
And here the "survivists" come into dispute, who claim that Jeanne d'Ark wasn't burned at all!..
Survivist version: substitution at the stake
Another group of historians believes that Jeanne d'Ark wasn't burned at the stake at all, but was miraculously saved by her August relatives.
Proponents of this theory are called " survivists "(from the word "survivre" - "survive", "survive").
Strange circumstances of Jeanne's execution
The first and very strange circumstance caught everyone's eye during the execution itself: the convict went up to the bonfire with her face covered (allegedly she was crookedly put on a paper mitre, i.e. a special cap for those sentenced to death).
The condemned woman was surrounded by a dense wall of a convoy of about 500 a soldier. The scaffold itself was half covered by the shield on which the sentence was written. The spectators were generally pushed to the edge of the hay Market, where the bonfire could only be seen from afar.
Aren't there a lot of precautions taken? And for what purpose: so that the audience does not recognize the condemned woman as Jeanne, or so that they do not see that this is not Jeanne at all? All this looks very suspicious.
For the period from 1430 by 1432 years later, records of five inquisitorial trials were found that sentenced five witches to be burned at the stake: Alix La Rousse, Catherine La Ferte, Jeanne La Turquenne, Jeanne Vanneril and Jeanne La Guilloret.
But no Jeanne d'Ark is not among those sentenced to execution at the stake.
One of two things: either Jeanne d'Arc was hidden under the name of one of these jeannes, or they are completely different Jeannes who have nothing to do with the defender of France.
As for the secular court, it did not pass judgment on Jeanne d at all.'Arc no verdict, and in General no session of the secular court in the case of Jeanne d'There was no arc.
But that's not all.
Five years after the so-called "execution" of the maid of Orleans, a woman appeared in Lorraine, in whom everyone recognized the former Joan of Arc.
Moreover, these were not ordinary citizens, but former military associates of the famous commander-in-chief of the French army, as well as king Charles XVII himself.
In 1436 this woman married the Comte de Armoise and thus became the Comtesse d'armoise.
In 1438 the following year, she again took part in military operations in Aquitaine.
In 1440 this year, the famous heroine finally retired from military Affairs and retired to her castle in Jolny, where she lived until her death. 1449 died in mysterious circumstances, a little short of the end of his life. 42 years.
But then how did it happen that her numerous relatives, so to speak, on "both sides of the fence" brought their half-sister almost to the stake, and then staged her execution?
Surveyors have an answer to this question, too.
According to their version, none other than the Templars were involved in the case of Joan of Arc. It was they who financed the British army that attacked France and, in fact, they unleashed the hundred Years ' war.
In General, here begins a completely different story, in the wilds of which it makes no sense to go deeper, so as not to finally get bogged down in the swamp of political intrigues of medieval Europe.
But the point is: all of Karl's attempts XVII to buy out Joan from the Burgundians ended in failure, since the Burgundians were forbidden to go with him to any deals by the Templars standing behind them, who were more expensive to argue with.
There was only one way out: it was Karl's sister who took over the rescue of Jeanne XVII - Catherine of Valois, who married king Henry of England V and who became the Queen of England, but did not stop being Jeanne's half-sister, too.
Catherine, as a representative of the English camp, found it easy to buy Joan out of the Burgundians.
But the question was: how to give Jeanne her freedom? The same all-powerful Templars could get wind that their sworn enemy in a woman's face was safe and sound, and then Catherine of England-Valois was already facing charges of treason.
It was then that the whole grandiose bluff of accusing Joan of heresy and her false execution in Rouen was supposedly planned.
Instead of Joan, they executed the first unfortunate woman they came across, fortunately, the dungeons of the Inquisition at that time were overflowing with women accused of witchcraft, since the witch hunt was in full swing.
And while the whole of France was in a stupor from the monstrous death at the stake of the Inquisition of the beloved heroine, Joan was taken to a safe place under the cover of night through a classic underground passage.
This is roughly how the scenario of events developed according to surveyors.
After her" execution", Jeanne d'Arc managed to marry Robert de Armoise, live peacefully for several years in her castle, give birth to two children, after which, apparently, the long hand of the Templars reached her, and she died at the age of 41 years, clearly not from old age. Not the best ending, either, but at least not at the stake.
Controversy about whether it was actually Jeanne d who escaped execution.'Ark, or impostor, doesn't stop until now.
Who knows what it was really like for them in their dark middle ages? As the saying goes, "things of bygone days."
By the way, the d'armoise family still exists in France today and honors Joan of arc.'Ark as the most illustrious of his ancestors.
Well, if at least one of these or some other versions takes place, and Jeanne d'Ark was not executed, but happily survived that bloody meat grinder called the hundred Years ' war, then for her you can only rejoice and breathe a sigh of relief that at least one monstrous crime in the history of mankind was less.