A brief history of Modern times

New time, or New history, is a period of human history that lasted from the end of the middle Ages to the beginning of Modern times. In Russia, the beginning of Modern times was considered to be over 1917 year - this year the February and October revolutions took place; according to another version, the beginning of Modern times is 1945 year – this year the Second World war ended.

The new history can be divided into periods:
1) Early modern times. This period lasted from 1500 year and ended about 1800 year (more often it is considered that in 1815 year). Notable historical milestones include the European Renaissance, the Age of discovery, and the Protestant Reformation.
2) Late new time. This period started around the middle of 18 centuries. Notable historical milestones include the American revolution, the French revolution, the Industrial revolution, the Great divergence (European miracle), and the Revolutions 1917 year in Russia. K 1804 this year, the world's population reached 1 a billion, the next billion came a little over a century later, in 1927 year.



Early modern times

This period follows the late middle Ages and is marked by the first European colonies, the growth of strong centralized governments, and the emergence of prominent nation-States that are direct precursors to the current ones.

Islam spread to North and East Africa. West Africa was inhabited by a variety of indigenous peoples. The Indian empires and States that occupied Southeast Asia were a vital link in the spice trade. The Indian subcontinent belonged to the Mughal Empire. The archipelago States, the Sultanate of Malacca and then the Sultanate of Johor, controlled the southern regions.

Various Chinese dynasties and Japanese shogunates controlled the Asian sphere. In Japan, the early Modern period is associated with the Edo period, which lasted from 1600 by 1868 year. In Korea, the early Modern period is considered to have lasted from the rise of the Joseon dynasty to the accession of king Kojong. The pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas built a large and diverse civilization that included the Aztec Empire, the Inca Empire, the Mayan civilization, and the Chibcha civilization. The kingdoms of Europe were moving in the direction of reformation and expansion. Russia reached the Pacific coast in 1647 and consolidated its control over the Russian Far East in 2014. 19  century.

At the beginning of Modern times, Western European countries began the Era of great geographical discoveries. Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, great Britain, and France began their colonial expansion and established many colonies in Africa, South Asia, and the Americas. The Ottoman Empire colonized Southeastern Europe, as well as parts of Western Asia and North Africa. Russia came into possession of some significant lands in Eastern Europe, Asia, and North America.



Asia

China. In China, urbanisation grew with the growing number of citizens and the increasing complexity of the division of labour. Private industry grew thanks to major urban centers such as Nanjing and Beijing. In particular, small businesses have grown, often specializing in the production of paper, silk, cotton and porcelain. But also a huge number of relatively small urban centers with markets have spread across the country. The markets in the cities mostly sold food, with some essential goods such as pins or butter. China became isolated during the late Ming dynasty, by prohibiting the construction of naval vessels. Despite its isolationist policies, the Ming Empire's economy continued to suffer from inflation due to an oversupply of silver in the Spanish New World entering the Chinese economy through new European colonies such as Macau. Ming China fought victorious but costly wars to protect Korea from Japanese invasion.

Japan. Japanese society Dating back to the Tokugawa period (Edo period), unlike the previous shogunates, was based on a strict class hierarchy, initially established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Daimyo (feudal lords)were located at the top, followed by the samurai warrior caste, and farmers, artisans and merchants were lower. The country was strictly closed to foreigners, with rare exceptions, due to the Sakoku (self-isolation of Japan) policy.

In some regions, especially small ones, daimyo and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyo could train as samurai, and samurai could act as local lords. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not take into account inflation or other changes in the monetary plan. As a result, the tax revenue collected by samurai landowners became less and less over time. This often led to numerous clashes between the noble but impoverished samurai and the well-to-do peasants. No one, however, managed to be convincing enough to seriously challenge the established order up to a meeting with foreign powers.

India. In the Indian subcontinent, the Mughal Empire ruled most of India at the beginning 18-of the 20th century. The end of the "Classical period" was the death and defeat of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707 the rise of the Maratha Empire, although the dynasty continued for a long time. 150 years. During this period, the Empire organized a highly centralized administration that United various regions. All the significant monuments of the Mughals, their most visible heritage, date from this period, which was characterized by the expansion of the influence of Persian culture on the territory of the Indian subcontinent, magnificent literary, artistic and architectural achievements. The Maratha Empire occupied the southwestern part of present-day India and expanded significantly under the rule of the Peshwas, the equivalent of modern Prime Ministers. 1761 the Maratha Empire's army lost the battle of Panipat, which halted the Empire's expansion.



British and Dutch colonization

The development of the New imperialism led to the fact that the colonial powers conquered almost all the territories of the Eastern hemisphere. The commercial colonization of India was initiated in 1757 after the battle of Plessis, when the Nawab of Bengal surrendered his possessions and they were taken over by the British East India company. 1765 in 2012, the company was granted "Divani", or the right to collect revenue from the regions. 1772 in 1970, the Company established its capital in Calcutta, and entrusted the management to its first Governor-General of India, Warren Hastings, becoming directly involved in the management.

The Maratha Empire, after the Anglo-Maratha wars, eventually lost to the British East India company in 1818 year following the Third Anglo-Maratha war. The Board lasted until 1858 the year when, as a result of the sepoy Rebellion 1857 year and as a result of the adoption of the better governance of India Act 1858 the Ministry of Indian Affairs of the British Empire took over the task of direct administration of British India. 1819 in 1970, Stamford Raffles established Singapore as a key trading post for Britain in its rivalry with the Dutch. However, their rivalry cooled in 1824 the year when the Anglo-Dutch Convention delineated the respective interests of the parties in Southeast Asia. Beginning with 1850-in the early 1990s, the rate of colonization shifted to a much higher level.

The Dutch East India company (1800) and the British East India company (1858) were dissolved by their respective governments, which took direct control of the colonies. Only Thailand was spared the experience of foreign rule, although Thailand's policies were also strongly influenced by those of Western powers. Colonial rule had a profound impact on the countries of Southeast Asia. At the same time that the colonial powers profited greatly from the region's vast resources and large market, colonial rule did indeed develop the region to varying degrees.



Europe

Spain. In 1492 the Catholic kings of the crown of Castile and the crown of Aragon (confederations of kingdoms) financed Christopher Columbus ' plan to sail West to reach India by crossing the Atlantic ocean. He landed on a continent unknown to Europeans, and henceforth called the New World-America. To prevent conflict between Portugal and the Castilian crown (which had financed Columbus ' voyage), the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed, dividing the world into two areas of exploration, where each side had exclusive rights to claim newly discovered lands.

Under king Philip, Spain, not the Habsburg Empire, was defined as the most powerful country in the world, easily eclipsing France and England. Furthermore, despite attacks from other European States, Spain maintained its dominant position with apparent ease. The Spanish Empire included territories and colonies in the Americas, Asia (Spanish Philippines), Europe, and some territories in Africa and Oceania.

France. The Ancien Rgime (French for "Old order") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from about 1450 years before the French revolution, which began in 1789 year. In the middle 15-in the 19th century, France was much smaller than it is today, and numerous border provinces were Autonomous or under foreign ownership (the Kingdom of England, for example); there were also foreign enclaves within the country, such as Comte-venessen. In the end 15-go, in 16-om and 17-in the 20th century, France is making a massive territorial expansion and an attempt to better integrate its provinces into an administrative whole. During this period, France expanded almost to its present-day territorial scale.

Ancien Rgime was ruled by the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. Much of France's medieval political centralization was lost during the hundred Years ' war, and the Valois dynasty's attempts to regain control of the country's disparate political centers were hampered by a series of Huguenot wars (or wars of religion).

Territories of the First French colonial Empire, which existed since 1546 by 1809 year, mostly located in North America. As a result of the Treaty of Paris 1763 France lost large tracts of land in North America: the territories of the present-day United States and Canada, as well as in Senegal (Africa).

England. The Elizabethan era is a period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603), and was a Golden age in the history of English culture. This was the peak of the English Renaissance, the heyday of English literature and poetry.

The Jacobean era dates back to the reign of James I (1603-1625). Overseas exploration and establishment of trading posts accelerated with the first permanent settlements in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607 year, in Newfoundland in 1610 year and in the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts in 1620 year. One king henceforth ruled England and Scotland after the Act of Union 1707 years.

The Carolingian era is associated with the reign of king Charles I (1625-1645), followed by his beheading by Oliver Cromwell's regime in 1649 year. Colonization of North America continued at a rapid pace with new colonies in Maryland (1634), Connecticut (1635), and Rhode island (1636).

The Russian Kingdom. Russia has experienced territorial growth in recent years. 17 the century that was the age of the Cossacks. The Cossacks were soldiers in military organizations, and they resembled pirates and American pioneers exploring the New World. The homeland of the Cossacks is defined by a line of Russian fortress cities located on the border with the steppe; it stretched from the Volga to Ryazan and Tula, then broke sharply South and extended to the Dnieper through Pereyaslavl. This area was inhabited by free people engaged in various crafts.

The development of Siberian lands was mainly due to the desire of the Cossacks to get valuable furs and ivory (mammoth). Russian explorers mainly used the Siberian river routes to move East, and to the middle of the 17 for centuries, settlements were located on the territory of Eastern Siberia, the Chukchi Peninsula, the Pacific coast, and along the Amur river. 1648 this year, Fedot Popov and Semyon Dezhnev were the first to cross the Bering Strait, which separates Asia and North America.



North America

The increasing size of the French and British colonies was a struggle for possession of the Western, or inner, territories. In view of this, a series of armed conflicts took place between great Britain, its colonies and American Indian allies on the one hand, and France, with its colonies and Indian allies on the other, which became known as the Franco-English conflicts. Spanish and Dutch troops also participated in some conflicts.

The American revolution and subsequent political upheavals of the second half 18-the end of the 20th century saw the Thirteen colonies of North America overthrow the rule of the British Parliament and then reject the British monarchy, making them sovereign. During this period, the colonies came under the control of their own independent States. To protect this self-government, the colonies United in the Second Continental Congress against great Britain; the ensuing armed conflict of 1775-1783 this is called the US war of independence. 4 July's 1776 the colonies signed the Declaration of Independence, which proclaimed their independence from great Britain and the creation of a Union between them. The British officially renounced any claims to the United States under the "peace of Versailles" - a series of treaties concluded in the United States. 1783 year.



South and North America

The war of independence of the Spanish colonies in America was a series of wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America that took place at the beginning of the Spanish revolution. 19-of the 20th century, with 1808 by 1829 year. They were directly linked to Napoleon's French invasion of Spain, which led to the formation of juntas by local resisting administrations. The conflict began with short-lived ruling juntas based in Chuquisaki and Quito, which were located in Spanish colonial territories, opposing the Supreme Central and governing junta of the Kingdom (an amalgamation of several hostile juntas).

Juntas sprang up all over America, creating a chain of newly independent countries from Argentina and Chile in the South to Mexico in the North. After the death of king Ferdinand VII in 1833 in 1970, Spain controlled only Cuba and Puerto Rico until the Spanish-American war of independence broke out. 1898 year. The Portuguese did not divide up their colonial territory in the Americas as the Spanish did. The captaincies they created were subordinated to a centralized administration in Salvador (later moved to Rio de Janeiro), which was directly subordinate to the Portuguese crown until its independence in 2003. 1822 this led to the creation of the Brazilian Empire.



Late new time

In 1800-x and the beginning 1900-in the early 1990s, great and powerful empires began to collapse: the Spanish Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Kingdom of Portugal, and others. Spain, which at one time had no equal in Europe, suffered a long decline due to the invasion of Napoleon Bonaparte. Sensing that the time had come, the vast Spanish colonies in South America began to revolt, leading to the fact that almost all of the Spanish territories gained independence.

The once mighty Ottoman Empire was destroyed by a series of revolutionary events, leaving the Ottoman Empire holding only a small region surrounding the capital, Istanbul.

The Mughal Empire, which descended from the Mongol Empire, was defeated by the developing Maratha Empire, or Maratha Confederation. The Marathas were doing well until the British became interested in India's wealth, and the British eventually came to rule not only within the borders of present-day India, but also gained control of Pakistan, Burma (now Myanmar), Nepal, Bangladesh, and some southern regions of Afghanistan.



British Victorian era

The Victorian era in the United Kingdom was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from June's 1837 year to January 1901 years. This was a long period of prosperity for the British people, as profits were provided by the overseas British Empire, as well as industrial improvements in the country, which provided a large, educated middle class with opportunities for development.

During the British "Imperial age," Napoleon's defeat left Britain without any serious international rival other than Russia in Central Asia. Along with the formal control it exercised over its own colonies, Britain's dominant position in terms of world trade indicated that it effectively controlled the economies of a large number of formally sovereign States, such as China, Argentina, and Siam (now Thailand). At this time, it is worth noting the Anglo-Zulu war, which was fought in 1879 year by the British Empire against the Zulu Empire.



French governments and conflicts

The Bourbon restoration was followed by the expulsion of Napoleon I from France in 1814 a year after his defeat. The" allies " returned the French throne to the Bourbon dynasty. The "second Empire" was the Bonapartist dictatorship of Napoleon III. 1852 by 1870 the year between the Second and Third republics of France.

The Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871 was a conflict between France and Prussia, during which Prussia was supported by the North German Alliance, of which it was a member, and the South German States of Baden, württemberg and Bavaria. As a result of the complete Prussian and German victory, the final unification of Germany took place under the rule of king Wilhelm I of Prussia. This war also marked the overthrow of Napoleon III and the end of the Second Empire, which was replaced by the Third Republic.



Russian Empire

Under Peter the Great, Russia was proclaimed an Empire in 1721 it has become a recognized world power in the past year. Edit from 1682 by 1725 a year later, Peter defeated Sweden in the Northern war, forcing it to cede Western Karelia and Ingria (two regions lost to Russia in the time of Troubles), as well as Estland (present-day Estonia) and Livonia (present-day Latvia), ensuring Russia's access to the sea and Maritime trade. Catherine II the Great, who ruled from 1762-1796, expanded Russia's political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth And incorporated most of its territories into Russia during the Partition Of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, pushing the Russian border to the West and South. Russia colonized the vast Asian lands of Siberia, expanding overland to the Pacific coasts of Asia and North America. Since the Empire maintained an Absolute monarchy, Russia remained more conservative than its Western neighbors. 1812 in 1970, France invaded Russia, but later it became a more powerful superpower. However, industrialization did not come to Russia until 1870-x years. The medieval practice of serfdom was abolished in 1861 this year, freeing more than thirty million Russian peasants. A market economy has finally emerged in the Russian Empire.



African colonization

After the abolition of the slave trade in 1807 the Berlin conference in 1884-1885 officially initiated the colonial division of Africa. The Berlin conference attempted to avoid war between European powers by allowing European rival countries to divide the African continent into national colonies. The Africans were not consulted.

To 1914 during that year, almost the entire continent was under European control. Liberia, which was settled by freed American slaves in 1820-in the 1990s, and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in Eastern Africa were the last remaining independent African States.



Meiji period Japan

Around the end 19-of the 20th century and in 20-the Meiji period, which lasted during the reign of Emperor Meiji, began in the 19th century. During this time, Japan began its own modernization, as a result of which it rose to the status of a world power. In Japan, the Meiji Restoration was initiated in 1860-in the 1950s, marking the rapid modernization initiated by the Japanese themselves on the European model.
Laws were passed requiring every able-bodied Japanese male citizen, regardless of social background, to serve a mandatory term of three and two additional years. This decision, a fatal blow to the samurai warriors and their daimyo, was initially met with resistance from both peasants and warriors. The peasant interpreted the term "military service" literally, as ketsu-EKI ("blood tax"), and tried to avoid service by any means necessary.

Japan's modernized armed forces enabled it to defeat the Qing Empire in the Sino-Japanese war of 1894-1895. Japan annexed Taiwan, Korea, and the Chinese province of Shandong.

After the death of Emperor Meiji, Emperor Taisho took the throne, and the Taisho period was a time of democratic reforms that granted democratic rights to all Japanese citizens.



United States

A split in the country based on the rise of slavery in the Southern United States eventually led to the American civil war. 1861 year. The American civil war began when seven southern slave States declared secession from the United States and began calling themselves the Confederate States of America (four more States joined the Confederacy later).

The leaders of the North agreed that only the end of hostilities would not be enough to win. Secession and Confederate nationalism were to be completely rejected, and all forms of slavery were to be eliminated.

The Confederacy had a larger area than it could defend, and it could not keep ports open and rivers clear. The North kept up the pressure, as the South was barely able to provide food and clothing for its soldiers, and eventually won.

Reconstruction of the South in 1863-1877 began with the emancipation Proclamation 1863 it was intended to provide the blacks of the South with freedom, full citizenship, and the right to vote. What followed was a backlash that left blacks in second-class status legally, politically, socially, and economically. 1960-x years.

In the end 19-after the civil war and after Reconstruction, the Gilded age era in the United States saw significant population growth and extravagant displays of wealth and excess by the American upper class. The increase in wealth stemmed mainly from industrial and demographic growth.



Constitution Of Australia

In 1901 in 1970, six separate British self-governing colonies-New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia-formed the Union of Australia. They retained the systems of government they had developed as separate colonies, but also had a Federal government that would be responsible for matters affecting the entire nation. After the Constitution of Australia came into force, the colonies collectively became States of the Commonwealth of Australia.



The First World War

Diplomatic clashes between the great powers that took place during the decade preceding 1914 years related to European and colonial issues have led to increased tensions.

The first world war began in 1914 the war lasted until the final armistice in 1918 year. "Allies" consisting primarily of the British Empire, France, and Russia before martha 1918 year, Japan and the United States after 1917 during the previous year, they defeated the Central powers led by the German Empire, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman empires. The war led to the collapse of four empires: the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman and Russian empires, as well as radical changes in the maps of Europe and Western Asia.

Chemical weapons were first used in the First world war. More than 9 millions of soldiers died on various battlefields, and almost the same number on the internal fronts of the participating countries due to food shortages, internal conflicts and various civil wars.



Revolutions 1917 goda and the Russian civil war

After Nicholas II abdicated due to the February revolution, the Provisional government of Russia was formed. In October 1917 the revolution that overthrew the Provisional government took place in the following year, in which the Red guard, armed groups of workers and defected soldiers led by the Bolshevik party, seized control of St. Petersburg (then known as Petrograd) and began an immediate armed takeover of the towns and villages that occupied the territory of the former Russian Empire.
In 1917 last year, Russia and the Central powers signed a truce in Brest. As a condition of peace, the Treaty with the Central powers ceded vast parts of the former Russian Empire to the German Empire and the Ottoman Empire, much to the discontent of nationalists and conservatives. The Bolsheviks made peace with the Central powers, just as they had promised the people before the revolution.
Many Central powers shared concerns that socialist revolutionary ideas might spread to the West. Therefore, many of these countries expressed support for the White movement in opposition to the Bolsheviks, including the provision of troops and supplies. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be " strangled in its cradle."
The main battles were fought between the Bolshevik Red Army and the white Army. Other nationalist and regional political groups also took part in military operations. Most of the fighting ended in 1920 this year saw the defeat of forces led by General Pyotr Wrangel in the Crimea, but significant resistance in some areas continued until the end of the war. 1923 years.



The great depression

The great depression was a global economic crisis that began in most countries in the United States. 1929 and ended in different years 1930-x or the beginning 1940-years in various countries. The depression had a devastating impact on virtually every country, rich or poor. International trade has halved, as has personal income, tax revenues, prices and profits. Cities around the world have suffered significantly, especially those that rely on heavy industry. Construction in many countries was almost stopped. Losses were incurred by agriculture and rural areas due to a decrease in crop prices by almost 60 percent. Faced with a sharp drop in demand with few alternative sources of employment, areas that depend on primary-sector industries were the most affected. The great depression in America ended in 1941 with America's entry into world war II. Some countries have developed support programs, while others have been subjected to some kind of political upheaval. In some countries around the world, desperate citizens turned to nationalists, the most famous of whom was Adolf Hitler, and set the stage for a new war.



World War II

The second world war was a global military conflict that occurred in 1939-1945. It was the largest and deadliest war in history, culminating in the Holocaust and the dropping of the atomic bomb.

The generally accepted view is that the date of the beginning of the war is 1 september 1939 the year when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. Within two days, great Britain and France declared war on Germany, although the fighting was limited to Poland. In accordance with the then secret Protocol of the non-aggression Treaty concluded by Germany and the Soviet Union, the latter 17 september 1939 he joined Germany in order to conquer Poland and divide Eastern Europe.

The Allies initially included Poland, great Britain, France, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, as well as countries of the British Commonwealth that were controlled directly by great Britain, such as British India. All of these countries declared war on Germany in September 1939 years.

Germany invaded Western Europe in may 1940 years. 27 september Germany, Italy, and Japan signed a mutual defense agreement, the Triple Pact, and they became known as the axis Powers. Nine months from now, 22 June's 1941 in the beginning of the year, Germany launched a massive attack on the territory of the Soviet Union, shortly after which it took the side of the Allies.
December's 1941 in the same year, Japan launched an attack on the United States at pearl Harbor, dragging it into the war on the side of the Allies. China also joined the Allies, as did eventually much of the rest of the world. At that time, China was attacking Japanese armies through guerilla warfare. Go to the top 1942 during the year, the main combatants were arranged as follows:: The British Commonwealth, the United States, and the Soviet Union fought Germany and Italy; the British Commonwealth, China, and the United States fought Japan.

Italy surrendered in September 1943 Germany surrendered in may 1945 years. Dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to the surrender of Japan, marking the end of the war 2 september 1945 years.

At the end of world war II, Europe was tacitly divided into Western and Soviet spheres of influence. Later, Western Europe merged into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and Eastern Europe - into the Warsaw Pact Organization. The two new superpowers were the United States and the Soviet Union. The two rivals would later meet in the Cold war. The Chinese civil war continued before and after the war, resulting in the people's Republic of China. Former colonies of European powers began to seek independence.

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