World war II-detailed causes, stages, and results

In terms of the degree of destruction, the number of victims and bloodshed, the Second world war is in the first place not only among wars XX a century, but also the entire history of mankind.

Without a doubt, the fact that Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany played a fatal role in fueling the Second World war.

Prerequisites for a new war in Europe
The causes of the second world war are closely related to the circumstances of the end of the previous world war. The hard end of the previous world war by the Entente Alliance created the conditions for the future World war II. Thus, we can say that the Second world war broke out as a continuation of the morally incomplete First world war.

Treaty of Versailles
28 June's 1919 in the forest of Compiegne near Versailles, under pressure from the Entente countries (France, England, USA, Italy and Japan), Germany was forced to sign its complete and unconditional surrender, which ended the First world war.
Under the terms of the surrender, all the blame for the outbreak of world war II was laid on Germany, which had to fulfill the following conditions::
* Germany was stripped of all its colonial possessions, which became the property of the victorious countries,
* It was supposed to return the province of Alsace-Lorraine to France,
* Pay out to the winning countries 20 billions of marks as material compensation for damage caused by the First world war.
* Germany was not allowed to have an army of more than 100 thousands of people.
• The so - called Polish corridor was formed- the territory that was given to Poland and divided Germany and East Prussia.
• In order to protect France from German attacks, the so-called Rhine demilitarized zone was created along the banks of the Rhine, in which Germany was forbidden to conduct maneuvers and build military fortifications.
The terms of this peace Treaty put Germany in such a humiliating position that it practically turned into a puppet country.
This created a certain political tension and raised fears that in the coming years, the United States will be able to 20 but the war was bound to repeat itself – it was clear that Germany would not accept defeat and would certainly want to take revenge for the humiliating Versailles diktat imposed on it.
Further events showed that almost immediately after the end of the First world war, Germany began to prepare for the next war, purposefully crushing and destroying Eastern Europe.
Over the next few years, several more peace treaties and non-aggression pacts are being signed one after another – the world wants to protect itself from a new war.

Treaty of Rapallo
Some confusion is caused by the peace Treaty of friendship and cooperation, signed by 16 April 1922 year in the Italian city of Rapallo between Russia and Germany.
A legitimate question arises: why did the RSFSR ally itself with the former enemy?
First, in Germany with 1919 by 1933 years later, the Weimar Republic was proclaimed, which at that time was a fairly decent democratic state. There was a strong Communist movement in the country, and there was every reason to hope that Germany would eventually "reform" and become a socialist Republic.
Secondly, the end of the First world war made the RSFSR and Germany the most "affected" countries. Germany was brought to its knees by the victorious countries of the Entente Alliance, and Russia voluntarily withdrew from the war on the most unfavorable conditions for itself, since it had enough of its own problems in the form of the October revolution, the change of the social system and the civil war.
Therefore, it is not surprising that in this difficult situation, both rogue States extended a hand of friendship to each other. Both countries had to somehow survive and start life from scratch. Germany needed testing grounds to test military equipment away from the watchful eye of the Entente. An agrarian and ruined Russia could use Germany's military experience.
Therefore, in 1922 this strange Alliance between a defeated Germany and Soviet Russia, which was taking its first political steps, was formed, and no one else wanted to be friends with Them.
However, everything changed after Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany.

Adolf Hitler comes to power in Germany
The capitulation in world war I eliminated the German Empire. On its ruins, the Weimar Republic was hastily formed, which had to take on the unbearable burden of paying the indemnities imposed on defeated Germany by the victorious countries.
As a result, the Germans were crushed by catastrophic poverty and national humiliation. On this basis, various radical parties began to appear, offering to lead Germany out of national disgrace. One of them was the National socialist workers ' party led by Adolf Hitler.
November's 1923 years later, Hitler's party attempted a coup d'etat, which was called the "Beer hall putsch". The Bavarian leaders did not support the coup, and as a result, it was suppressed by the German police, and Hitler got off with a light prison sentence. Although the putsch failed, it was from this moment that Hitler's party declared itself.
In 1925 this year, General Hindenburg becomes President, who believed that the Versailles Treaty was to blame for all Germany's troubles, condemning the country to shame and poverty.
In 1929 last year, the collapse of the new York stock exchange caused the Great Depression to break out in the world, which could not but affect the political situation in Germany. The social Democrats and Communists could not reach a common opinion and were unable to solve the problems of unemployment and the financial crisis.
Against this background, the party of Hitler is sharply advancing, which begins to flirt with the big German Industrialists, who saw in the national socialists salvation from the proletariat.
In July 1932 Hitler's party is now the most popular party in the country. The population sees the national socialists as a party that can restore order in the country, bring Germany out of the crisis and raise it from its knees. The idea of a strong totalitarian state, proclaimed by Hitler, could not have been more appropriate for the humiliated and insulted German nation.
30 January 1933 Hitler is appointed to the post of Reich Chancellor by decree of President Hindenburg. The national socialists and national conservatives unite to form a coalition government in Germany.
28 February 1933 years later, representatives of the national socialists set fire to the Reichstag, blaming the Communists for it. Using this as a pretext, the Nazis imposed a state of emergency, mass arrests of Communist deputies and terror began. The Communist party was banned. The Reich Chancellor received from the Reichstag the right to rule Germany alone for a certain period of time. 4 years. The Weimar Constitution was abolished.
august 1934 for three years, Hitler was awarded the title of "Fuhrer" and "Reichskanzler"for life. In Germany, new bodies of order control are being introduced: the state secret police (Gestapo), the security service (SD), and Hitler's personal protection units (SS).
The dictatorship of fascism is being established in Germany.

The Spanish civil war
17 July's 1936 a year later, civil war broke out in Spain. The military - nationalist dictatorship of General Francisco Franco, with the support of fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, overthrew the Republican government of the country.
The United States, France and the United Kingdom have adopted a wait-and-see attitude of "non-intervention", closing their markets to Republican Spain. At the same time, Franco's detachments received assistance with weapons and troops from allied Germany and Italy.
Historians note that for Hitler's party, it was the conflict in Spain that became a test of the balance of power in the world and a rehearsal for the future world war.

Continuation of Germany's aggressive policy
martha 1936 the German army invades the Rhenish demilitarized zone without encountering any objection from great Britain and France.
European countries, apparently, did not notice or did not want to notice that it was with this act that Germany began its revenge in squeezing out the lost territories as a result of losing in the First world war.

Anti-Communist Union
25 November's 1936 in Berlin, Germany and Japan form an Alliance to jointly fight communism and prevent the spread of Bolshevism in the world, called the anti-Comintern Pact. A year later, in November 1937 Italy joins them this year, then, in February 1939 - Hungary, in March 1939 - Spain, in November 1941 - Finland, Bulgaria and Romania.

Hitler invades Austria
12 martha 1938 two years later, German units crossed the border of Austria, whose army surrendered without a fight. The next day, 13 martha the document "on the reunification of Austria with the German Empire" was published, which stated that Austria was now a German territory. What the Prussian king Frederick the Great dreamed of has happened.
Thus, unnoticed by the leading European countries, Hitler began his aggressive movement towards world domination.

The Munich agreement
30 september 1938 every year, representatives of Germany, great Britain, France and Italy meet in Munich, where the leading European countries give their consent to Germany's seizure of the Sudetenland. This agreement is called the Munich agreement.
The Munich agreement is considered a classic example of appeasement of the aggressor in the person of Germany, which the participating countries did in order to protect themselves from German aggression, so that only Germany would not touch them.
As a result, their connivance led to even greater impunity for Germany and an increase in its predatory appetites, which ultimately led to the emergence of World war II.

Hitler seizes the Sudetenland
In October 1938 with the cowardly permission of the Munich agreement, Germany snatches Czechoslovakia's most industrially developed region, the Sudetenland.
After losing the first world war, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed, and from its fragments of Bohemia and Moravia, a new state was formed – Czechoslovakia.
On the territory of Czechoslovakia, the Sudetenland remained, part of the population of which were Germans-descendants of colonists of the Middle ages. Under the pretext of saving these "unfortunate brothers" who were terrorized by Czechoslovakia, Hitler extorts permission from great Britain, France and Italy to take the Sudetenland for himself.
Poland, for its part, has long had its eye on Cieszyn Silesia – another region of Czechoslovakia where historical poles lived.
Prague does not dare to go to war with two opponents at once, and 1 October's withdraws its troops from disputed areas, causing hysteria in Germany and Poland.
October's the Polish army occupies the Cieszyn territory, calling this operation "zaluzhye".
Thus, Germany and Poland are pulling Czechoslovakia apart. The dismemberment of Czechoslovakia has turned Poland's head, and it is already beginning to look closely at Soviet Ukraine, anticipating how it will share the Soviet Union together with Germany, not suspecting that Hitler is simply using it to his advantage and will immediately get rid of it as soon as he does not need it.
There was no place for a "greater Poland" in Hitler's chauvinist dreams, and Germany had all these Affairs with the Polish government clearly to lull the vain poles off their guard. This was well known to the Western countries, but none of them prevented Germany from fooling the Polish leaders, knowing that if Hitler stepped over the corpse of a defeated Poland, he would rush into Soviet Russia.
December's 1938 year Germany concludes a peace Treaty with France. On the German side, it is signed by foreign Minister Joachim Ribbentrop, and on the French side by French foreign Minister Georges bonnet. In fact, with this Treaty, Hitler simply silences France.
15 martha 1939 years with the passive consent of England and France, Hitler's Germany occupies the Czech Republic. Instead, the vassal regions of Bohemia and Moravia are formed.
All this time, the chauvinist behavior of Germany meets almost no resistance from great Britain and France, who are trying to appease the German monster with various kinds of concessions and compromises, which is called the appeasement policy.

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
29 august 1939 Germany enters into a rather fictitious non-aggression agreement with Soviet Russia. On the Soviet side, Vyacheslav Molotov, people's Commissar for foreign Affairs of Russia, is taking part in signing it, and on the German side, German foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop is again taking part. In the future, this agreement is called the "Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact".
Within the framework of this document, the USSR and Germany promised not to attack each other, as well as not to interfere in the event of an attack by any third country on one of the countries participating in the Treaty.
Interestingly, this non-aggression document was accompanied by an additional secret Protocol on the conditional territorial redrawing of Eastern Europe in the interests of Germany and the USSR.
According to this Protocol, Vilnius, which belonged to Poland, fell to Lithuania, and Lithuania itself and the Western regions of Poland fell under the political control of Germany. The territory of Estonia, Finland, Bessarabia (now Moldova) and Eastern Poland were considered in the field of view of the Soviet Union.
Thus, an attack on territories within the sphere of interests of one of the countries participating in the act was the same as an attack on the country participating in the Pact itself.
With the help of these secret political movements of the map of Eastern Europe, the USSR and Germany, as it were, pushed their borders as far away from themselves as possible at the expense of these conditionally their territories of Eastern Europe.
Interestingly, the text of the non-aggression Pact was freely published in the press, while the existence of the secret Protocol was categorically denied by the Soviet Union until the very beginning of Perestroika, and historians and politicians still argue about its existence.
Seeing what Hitler was doing in Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union was extremely suspicious of Germany, but in order to gain time, it agreed to conclude a peace Treaty with it.
The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact is no longer valid 22 June's 1941 two years after Germany attacked the Soviet Union, but thanks to this Pact, this attack was delayed for exactly two years and saved the Soviet Union from a two-front war, because in the end of the war, the Soviet Union was forced to go to war on two fronts. 1939 the Soviet Union fought off the Japanese on Khalkhin-Gol.

This unofficial military conflict began with the fact that in 1932 in 1970, Japan occupied the territory of China and created its own vassal state of Manchukuo on the territory of Manchuria. This did not seem enough to Japan, and it began to claim the territory of border Mongolia, intending to snatch it from it 25 kilometers of land.
Mongolia called on the Soviet Union to help, a cooperation agreement was signed between them, and Soviet army units approached the disputed border.
In 1938 in 1950, the Japanese launched a sortie near lake Khasan, which was repulsed by Soviet troops. 8 May the Japanese attempted to capture the Mongolian island of Halkin Gol, but were again defeated. 20 august 1939 a decisive battle took place during this year, during which the territory of Mongolia was completely liberated from the Japanese invaders.
15 september 1939 two years later, the USSR and Japan signed an armistice.
This military incident between the USSR and Japan was a kind of rehearsal for the future war between the USSR and Germany, the Soviet commanders had a good school and were mentally prepared to repel the attack of Hitler's army.
It was in this military conflict that the talent of the outstanding Soviet commander Georgy Zhukov first manifested itself, largely thanks to which the future world war II will be won.

The Soviet Union is preparing for war
It becomes clear that war will begin sooner or later, and the USSR begins to actively prepare for war.
Among the urban population, active campaigning and propaganda on the sports lifestyle began to be carried out.for this purpose, military sports standards of the TRP (ready for labor and defense), parachuting are introduced, the OSOAVIAKHIM society (the ancestor of DOSAAF) is being created, and sports training of the population is being encouraged in every possible way.
In 1940 every year, the labor regime is tightened and the working day length increases. Instead of a six-day working week, the country introduces a seven-day working week, and Sunday is officially considered a day off. Responsibility for absenteeism is being tightened. Dismissal and transfer to another job was punishable by imprisonment.
The army is being re-equipped at an accelerated pace: a new YAK-1 fighter, a T-34 tank, a SVT rifle and a PPSH submachine gun are being prepared for mass production.

Repressions against the military in the USSR
On the other hand, on the eve of the war, when the German attack was only a matter of time, the so-called "purges" of the personnel of The Soviet army officer corps that began in the USSR are puzzling.
Leading military leaders were shot: Blucher, Yegorov, Tukhachevsky, Yakir, Uborevich – the total number of repressed officers and commanders. 40 thousands of people.
By the way, during the four years of the future great Patriotic war and world war II, people were killed in battles 294 a General and an Admiral, which is two times less than in pre-war peacetime.
The destruction of their own commanders on the eve of war looks, to say the least, strange and incomprehensible. In the context of the impending military threat, every commander should be dear, especially those who have received military experience in Spain and Khalkhin Gol, and such a "beheading" of the Soviet Army just before the war looks very suspicious and makes one wonder about the adequacy of Stalin.
The results of these strange actions of the Soviet government were felt already in the first days and months of the war. If it were not for these mass repressions on the eve of the war against military leaders and commanders, including the border guards, the outcome of the great Patriotic war could have developed quite differently, and perhaps this war would not have begun at all.

The beginning of the Second world war. The first stage of the war (September 1, 1939-June 21, 1941).)
The rebirth of Germany was only the first stage in Hitler's maniacal plans. Germany was striving for world domination, and its first victim was Poland.

Attack on Poland
26 January 1934 however, Germany enters into a non-aggression Pact with Poland, as will become clear later, only to lull the naive poles to sleep.
By signing a non-aggression Pact with Moscow, Hitler believed that with this Treaty he would tie the hands of the USSR, which would not be able to interfere in its occupation of Polish territory.
september 1939 years later, Hitler launched an operation to capture Poland under the code name "Himmler". Hitler's soldiers in Polish military uniforms infiltrated a border radio station and began calling on poles to rebel against the Germans.
Using this provocation on the Polish-German border as a pretext, Hitler accused the Polish side of mutiny, after which German units invaded Polish territory.
This was the beginning of the Second world war.
Through 2 however, England and France still dared to declare war on Germany, but this Declaration remained only on paper. The allies were in no hurry to save Poland from Hitler, waiting and hoping that German aggression would spread to the neighboring Soviet Union.
If the French and British armies had come to the aid of the Polish divisions in time, the fascist plague would have been nipped in the Bud, and the Second world war would have ended almost without beginning.
Against 62 total German divisions defended 32 Polish divisions, so the forces were initially unequal. Through 2 weeks later, Polish resistance was broken and Poland was occupied. The Polish government emigrated to Romania. Hitler wiped his feet on Poland and walked on. The larger predator ate the smaller one.
september 1939 this year officially began the first stage of the Second world war, which can be called Hitler's victory March across Europe. German soldiers marched through European countries, almost without encountering resistance. This stage lasted until 21 June's 1941 years.

Capitulation Of France
On the eve of world war II, the French army was considered 3-it is the second largest and most powerful country after Germany and the USSR. However, all its power was rendered useless by the Wehrmacht's war machine, which crushed the French army in a matter of weeks and forced France to capitulate ignominiously.
While Hitler plundered Poland and Czechoslovakia, the French did not sit idly by. They began actively preparing for war back in the Soviet Union. 1929 year. To do this, they built a whole Maginot defense complex, named after the military figure Andre Maginot. It took up as much as 400 kilometers and it was spent on it 3 a billion francs. It consisted of underground FORTS with all the necessary living quarters, where there were elevators and ventilation, electricity and telephone were provided, hospitals were equipped and a single-track railway was stretched.
But all this powerful fortification system was useless before Hitler's army, because it was designed to repel a direct attack of the enemy, while the Germans broke through the defenses in the Ardennes mountains and marshes, where the French were not waiting for them.
10 May 1940 two years later, the Nazis launched an offensive bypassing the Maginot fortifications from Holland and Belgium. Both of these countries played the role of a springboard for the German army before the attack on France.
14 May the Dutch army surrendered. Belgian troops retreated to the Meuse river, and Anglo-French units urgently approached the same river. But their defenses could not hold off the Hitlerite onslaught, and 20 May Wehrmacht troops reached the English channel, pinning the allied troops to the sea. With heavy losses, the remnants of the Anglo-French units managed to evacuate to England.
14 July's 1940 on the orders of Weygand, the French capital was surrendered without a fight, and the Wehrmacht army entered Paris. The next morning, the Parisians were woken up by a voice over the loudspeaker, which sounded in French but with a strong German accent. He announced in the introduction of a curfew and that all clocks were moved forward by one hour-France was now to live on Berlin time.
17 June's Marshal Petain replaced the demoralized French government and began negotiations with Hitler for surrender. Reveling in his own superiority, Hitler decided to accept the surrender of France in the very car in which it was delivered. 18 June's 1919 two years later, the peace of Versailles, which humiliated Germany, was concluded. The car was found, restored to a decent condition, and brought to the forest of Compiegne, where it had been in the previous year. 1919 year, and 22 June's 1940 exactly one year before the attack on the Soviet Union, France signed its humiliating surrender to Germany.
Thus, Hitler decided to restore historical justice and put France in the place in which Germany had previously been.
In order to defeat Holland, Belgium, and England and bring France to its knees, Hitler needed only 44 of the day. This was done with 10 May by 22 June's 1940 years.
The UK was next in line.

Hitler's Conquest Of The Balkans
In spring 1941 year Germany captured the Balkans.
martha the Nazis entered Bulgaria, Greece and Yugoslavia.
Thus, the whole of Western and Central Europe was in the hands of Hitler.
It was the turn of the Soviet Union.

Attack on the Soviet Union. Second stage of the war
The Barbarossa Plan»
The plan of attack on the USSR was developed by Hitler in 1940 it was named Operation Barbarossa, in honor of the king of medieval Germany. XII centuries of Frederick I Barbarossa.
This operation was supposed to defeat the USSR in a lightning campaign (German:"blitzkrieg"), which was supposed to end by November 1941 years.
This plan for the lightning takeover of the USSR was supposed to deliver three simultaneous strikes on the Soviet Union, which were to be carried out by three Wehrmacht armies:
* The Yug group attacked Moldova, Ukraine, Crimea and gained access to the Caucasus and Baku oil,
* Center group-attacked Minsk, Smolensk and Moscow,
* Group "North" - captured the Baltic States and went to Leningrad and went to Murmansk.
In Hitler's plans, it was scheduled for October 1941 it is necessary to advance to the Volga-Northern Dvina border, so that the entire European territory of the USSR is occupied by Wehrmacht troops.
22 June's 1941 year in 4 in the morning, the fascist troops crossed the border of the Soviet Union and the entire military machine of Hitler's Germany collapsed on Soviet soil. The second stage of the war began, which lasted until 18 November's 1942 years.
The Brest fortress was the first to meet the enemy. The fierce resistance of the garrison was going on when the rest of the country was still asleep and did not suspect that the war had already begun.
Before 11 July's the Germans were sure that the war was going according to their plan:
* Group "North" effortlessly occupied the Baltic States and was ready to go to Leningrad,
* The Center group reached Smolensk without hindrance,
* The Yug group calmly approached Kiev.

Retreat of the Soviet troops
It is sad to admit, but the Soviet troops in the first days and weeks of the war suffered catastrophic losses: 800 thousands of people killed, 2 a million captured soldiers of the Soviet Army.
Stalin proved to be a poor strategist and stubbornly believed that Hitler would not attack the USSR until the autumn, and while it was occupied by great Britain, the Soviet Union would have time to rearm.
And only when literally the entire intelligence service in one voice began to repeat the exact date of the attack – 22 however, a belated order was issued to move towards the Western border. By the time of the German attack in 4 three o'clock in the morning 22 June's 24 the divisions were on the March. Stupidly did not have time to approach.
During this time, German aircraft managed to bomb border airfields, stations, railway bridges. The planes were destroyed before they could take off.
Stalin's "witch hunt", announced among the commanders and commanders of the red Army just before the war and mowed down about 40 thousands of armed forces personnel have also done their job. And 50% of those who took the place of those who left, did not take part in military operations and did not have command experience. The Soviet army was not inferior to the German in terms of the number of equipment, but the soldiers, oddly enough, did not know how to use it.
As a result, the Hitlerite army, in its lightning rush, defeated the Soviet border units in the zone from 100 before 300 kilometers East of the Soviet border and inland.
Thus, the Soviet army, despite the intensive preparation of the pre-war years, was not ready for war. I had to learn literally on the go, in combat conditions, losing people, losing equipment, gaining the military experience that was simply not there at the beginning of the war.
The vast expanses of the Soviet homeland were saved again, which allowed the Russian army to move far inland and get time to maneuver and turn around.
The same thing was repeated as in the war with Napoleon: the boundless territory of Russia itself came to the rescue, which allowed the Nazis to be lured deeper into the country and exhaust their people and equipment. As a result, the German blitzkrieg was thwarted: the war was moving into a protracted stage.
While European countries succumbed to Hitler almost without a fight, Russia was locked in a life-and-death struggle with Germany. The Russians fought for literally every inch of their land.

Europe joins the fight
The Western countries finally realized what they had gotten themselves into by allowing Hitler to do whatever he wanted in Europe, and they woke up from their position of observation and joined the General struggle against fascism. Roosevelt and Churchill openly declared their support for the USSR.
12 July's 1941 the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union entered into an agreement on mutual military support.
august The United States expressed its readiness to provide military and economic support to the Soviet army.
14 august The United Kingdom and the United States announced the creation of the Atlantic Charter.
In September 1941 two years later, units of the Soviet and British armies occupied Iran to prevent the establishment of German bases in the East.

The Siege Of Leningrad

For the first 18 days of war group "North" overcame 600 kilometers of Soviet territory, advancing to 30 kilometers per day. 5 July's parts of the Sever group took the city of Ostrov, located on the border of the Leningrad region. 9 July's enemy soldiers occupied Pskov, which was separated from Leningrad by only a few kilometers. 280 kilometers away. 10 July's the Nazis launched an offensive on Leningrad.
The capture of Leningrad allowed Hitler to solve several strategic tasks at once:
* Capture the city's defensible industry,
* Capture and destroy the Baltic fleet
The shortest distance from Pskov to Leningrad was possible to walk along the Kiev highway through Luga.
12 July's the Wehrmacht troops reached the Luhansk direction, however, at this point their lightning campaign came across the Luga defensive line and stalled.
The Germans did not manage to break into Leningrad on the move. Then they began to surround the city in order to take it into the ring of blockade.
30 august the Germans cut the railway tracks leading to Leningrad. 8 september 1941 two years later, Wehrmacht soldiers broke through the Soviet defenses at the mga station, captured Shlisselburg and cut off Leningrad from the rest of the country. The siege of Leningrad began, which lasted 871 day.
In order to wipe Leningrad off the face of the earth, the Nazis conducted barbaric bombardments and shelling on it. One of the fires destroyed the Badayev food warehouses, condemning Leningrad residents to starvation.
Communication with the city could only be maintained on the ice of lake Ladoga, which was called the "Road of life", along which the country tried to deliver bread and medicines to the besieged city.
The country did everything to save besieged Leningrad: in the summer 1942 a pipeline was laid along the bottom of lake Ladoga in the summer, which brought fuel to the city, and in the autumn an energy cable was laid.
But the starving Leningraders did not give up and continued to produce ammunition, uniforms and equipment for the front.
Zhukov was urgently summoned to Leningrad.
The Soviet Army repeatedly tried to break through the enemy blockade, but they managed to do it only in January 1943 years. To the South of lake Ladoga there was a corridor free of Germans only 8 meters wide-10 kilometers over which for 18 days urgently stretched the railway and built a ferry across the Neva. Now it is possible to send trains with food, medicine, and ammunition to the city.
In 1944 this year, the Soviet Army launched a powerful offensive, called the Leningrad-Novgorod operation, during which the Germans were driven back from the city to a distance 100 kilometers, and the blockade ring was finally broken.
27 January 1944 Leningrad was released from the blockade, which lasted almost three years. 900 days.
According to official data, during the siege of starvation and bombing in Leningrad, he died 641 human.
But Hitler's plans to destroy Leningrad failed, and so did his blitzkrieg for a lightning takeover of the USSR.

Battle for Moscow
At the same time that besieged Leningrad was struggling with the German blockade, Hitler's army "Center" was rushing to Moscow, the capital of the Soviet Union.
30 september 1941 two years later, the Nazis launched an offensive on Moscow. For the main attack, they formed a powerful tank fist codenamed "Typhoon".
As a result, the Nazis immediately managed to encircle 5 Soviet armies in the Vyazma area, caught in the so-called "Vyazma cauldron".

Defense Of Moscow
October's Zhukov (who had previously been in Leningrad) was urgently summoned to Moscow. The problem was that Stalin's headquarters did not have all the information about the situation at the front (how so?), so Zhukov had to personally go to the front line to get acquainted with the situation. Apparently, he specifically had to come from Leningrad for this, and the generals from the headquarters could not go to the front line and see what was going on.
After returning from the front line, Zhukov was appointed commander of the Western front and assumed responsibility for defending Moscow.
Zhukov's main task was to buy time before the reserve armies arrived, which were already being pulled up from Siberia and the Far East.
During this time, it was necessary to organize the defense of Moscow. As a last resort, after all, the Germans entered the city, it was decided to mine the capital. Zhukov decided to repeat the experiment 1812 the year when Moscow was burned down and left to the French.
18 October's the Germans took Mozhaisk, 27 October's - Volokolamsk.
Stalin's slow command, which had delayed the Soviet retreat all the way to Moscow, finally accumulated a reserve and pulled it up to the capital. 19  October's 1941 soon the long-awaited reinforcements arrived, delivered from the Far East and Siberia, just in time.
The Germans made their first attempt to take Moscow in the end October's 1941 years, but were stopped by our 50-th army.
November's 1941 a year later, a traditional military parade dedicated to the October revolution was held in Moscow, with the only difference being that both soldiers and equipment went straight from the parade to defend Moscow. This parade went down in history as the " parade of troops going to the front."
The Germans tried to make their way to Moscow from two sides: from the North through the city of Klin and from the South through Tver, but they encountered resistance from Soviet troops.
Also, at the end October's the weather became very bad, muddy, and the roads became unsuitable for advancing. German tanks were stuck in the mud and skidding, the soldiers were on the verge of fatigue and panic. The rains were followed by early frosts, which finally demoralized the German army, which was not used to fighting in such conditions.
In December 1941 year group "Center" launched the last offensive on Moscow.

Soviet counteroffensive
December's Soviet troops launched a counteroffensive, pushing the Germans back 100 meters from Moscow-200 kilometers.
By April 1942 in two years, Moscow and the Moscow region were completely cleared of fascists.
This was the first defeat of Hitler's army during world war II, which debunked the myth of the invincibility of German soldiers and finally thwarted the blitzkrieg. It became clear that the Soviet Union could win this war.
It was in the battle of Moscow that Hitler's vaunted army suffered its first major defeat. The defeat of the fascist troops near Moscow was the beginning of a turning point in the great Patriotic war, however, the final turning point itself came during the battle of Stalingrad.

Pearl Harbor
Having learned a good lesson at Khalkhin Gol, Japan did not go to war with the Soviet Union, however, in December 1941 in the same year, Japan attacked an American base in the Pacific ocean, called pearl Harbor.
This forced the United States to abandon the role of a bystander and officially enter the war against Germany 7 December's 1941 years.
The third is the turning point of the war
With 19  November's 1942 year before 31 December's 1943 the third stage of the war lasted for three years. It is called the turning point. Military operations acquired a gigantic scale and were characterized by great tension.
Battle of Stalingrad: 17 July's 1942 – 2 February 1943 g.
By Midsummer 1942 two years of military operations unfolded on the Volga.
To capture the South of Russia, Hitler decides to attack Stalingrad. Having gained access to the Volga, the German army could reach the Caspian sea and the Caucasus, to Baku's oil.
This plan should have been implemented 6-I am Paulus ' field army, which included 13 divisions that had 3 thousands of guns and 500 tanks.
The beginning of the battle of Stalingrad is considered to be 17 July's 1942 year when 6-I Paulus's army was confronted with 62-th and 64-th Soviet armies of the Stalingrad front. The following 6 for months, the German and Soviet armies were locked in fierce battles.

Defensive stage of the battle of Stalingrad
23 august 1942 two years later, German troops came close to Stalingrad. 75 thousands of Stalingrad residents volunteered for the front, while the rest continued to work day and night.
In the middle september the Germans broke through to the city, fighting began to go right on the streets of Stalingrad, literally for every street and every house. It took only 2 years for the Nazis to capture European countries-3 weeks, but here you had to spend a week on each street or even one house. Stalingrad resisted with all its might. By November, almost the entire city had been captured by the Germans.
But the Soviet command, headed by Zhukov, was already developing a plan to defeat Hitler's troops. Under Stalingrad, in an atmosphere of increased secrecy, a strike group of Soviet units was already being created.

Offensive stage of the battle of Stalingrad
19 November's 1942 two years later, Soviet units from two fronts at once - the South-Western and don fronts-launched a confident offensive. Seven German divisions were defeated and five taken as prisoners.
February 1943 the year the last division of the Wehrmacht was destroyed, which officially went down in history as the date of the end of the battle of Stalingrad.

Significance of the battle of Stalingrad
The defeat of Hitler's troops at Stalingrad was a turning point in the great Patriotic war of the Soviet Union against the Nazi invaders. The German army ceased to dominate this war.
True, Hitler could not accept the loss of strategic leadership of his troops during the war and in the summer 1943 he made one last attempt to hold the front-the offensive on Kursk.

Battle of Kursk: July 5, 1943-August 23, 1943
This battle is also called the Kursk bulge, because after several battles, the front line between the cities of Orel and Belgorod cut a large protrusion towards the West in the form of an arc, in the center of which was just Kursk.
Hitler's plan was to encircle and destroy the Soviet troops on this ledge.
The battle of Kursk bulge has begun 5 July's a massive attack by German troops.
12 July's the greatest tank battle in history took place near the village of Prokhorovka. It was attended by about 1200 tanks and self-propelled guns on each side.
On the same day, the Soviet army launched a counteroffensive. The battle continued 50 days, and ended with the final turning point in the course of hostilities. The Soviet army has confidently taken a leading position in the overall course of the war.
This hastened the collapse of the Hitler coalition: 25 July's the fascist government of Italy was liquidated. The new head of state immediately declared war on Germany. The fascist bloc begins to disintegrate.

The fourth and final stage of the war: from January 1, 1944 to may 9, 1945.
The Wehrmacht troops were finally driven out of the Soviet Union by Soviet troops.
Allies great Britain and the United States finally open a "Second front".
The Soviet army continues to drive fascists all over Europe without stopping, all the way to their lair – Germany, liberating European countries from German occupation along the way.
The combined efforts of the entire anti-Fascist coalition lead to the complete destruction of the German army and the complete collapse of Germany.

May 9, 1945-victory of the Soviet Union and surrender of Germany
30 April 1945 Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his secret bunker under the Reich Chancellery, seeing the complete and final failure of his plans to achieve world domination by unleashing world war II.
May 1945 a year later, the complete and unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany was signed in the Berlin suburb of Karlshorst.
It happened exactly at midnight Moscow time. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov accepted the surrender from the German command.

Results of the Second world war
The main blow of Nazi Germany was borne by the Soviet Union, which suffered the greatest losses in world war II. In this war, many people died 27 millions of Soviet people. At the cost of their lives, Nazi Germany was destroyed.
Nazism was condemned at the Nuremberg trials as a crime against humanity.
In 1945 this year, an agreement was signed in Yalta on the creation of the United Nations – the United Nations to prevent such dictatorships that threaten the existence of human civilization.
The consequences of the United States ' use of nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were so disastrous that most countries signed a Treaty banning these weapons of mass destruction.

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